Geography is the study of the planet, its land, its features, its inhabitants, and phenomena. The branch of NRCan is concentrated in the mathematical branch which includes mapping, photogrammetry, topography, geomatics and spatial analysis.

NRCan is responsible for the acquisition, management and dissemination of topographic and place name (geographical names) data for the Canadian landmass. From the information contained in the Geospatial Database, NRCan produces topographic data in different formats and scales. The Atlas of Canada is a key source of geographic information for all Canadians. And finally, the Surveyor General Branch (SGB) surveys and contributes to the management of jurisdictional boundaries to ensure Canada has the boundary certainty required to exert its sovereignty and meet its legal obligations.