Energy

In Canada, there are diverse and reliable renewable and non-renewable energy sources: oil, natural gas, hydroelectricity, coal, nuclear (uranium), solar, wind, tidal and biomass. Canada is the fifth largest energy producer in the world and the eighth largest consumer of energy.

List of Topics:

Non-renewable Resources

Coal Resources

Canada has about 1% of the world’s coal resources. Depicted on the map are the major coal deposits in Canada, categorized by rank, and the locations of major coal fields and coal mines, major coal transportation routes and major coal-powered electrical generating stations.

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Crude Oil and Natural Gas Resources

Canada has significant proven reserves of crude oil (178 billion barrels). Canadian natural gas reserves were 58 trillion cubic feet as of year-end 2006. The map shows the major petroleum-producing fields (or pools) of conventional natural gas, crude oil and the oil sands, as well as the extensive pipeline network.

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Uranium Resources

Canada has about 8% of the world’s unmined uranium resources, but accounts for some 25% of the global primary uranium production. The map shows districts with potential for uranium development, small occurrences of uranium, locations of uranium mines and facilities, and locations of nuclear facilities that generate electrical power.

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Oil and Gas Fields, Pipelines and Processing Plants, 1970, Eastern Canada

Contained within the 4th Edition (1974) of the Atlas of Canada is a collection of graphics and two maps. The first map shows the location of oil and gas fields, pipelines and processing plants for Eastern Canada. The second map shows distribution and production of coal for 1970. These maps are accompanied by a set of graphs providing coal production by type and province, total estimated reserves and value of all mineral production for 1970.

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Oil and Gas Fields, Pipelines and Processing Plants, 1970, Western Canada

Contained within the 4th Edition (1974) of the Atlas of Canada is a set of two maps and two groups of graphs. The first map shows the location of oil and gas fields, pipelines and processing plants for Western Canada. The second map shows locations of crude oil, petroleum oil and natural gas pipelines as well as areas of sedimentary rocks in which oil and gas have been found or may be found.

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Energy and Minerals

Contained within the 5th Edition (1978 to 1995) of the National Atlas of Canada is a map that shows the energy data in oil and gas fields and related infrastructure, and electricity generating stations and transmission lines; mineral data shown are mines and processing facilities. Selected railways also included. Tables identify all data on map.

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Renewable Resources

Hydropower Resources

Hydroelectricity is electricity generated by hydropower, which usually requires the potential energy of water stored behind a dam to drive a water turbine and generator. The map shows 632 large dams and 6 major dams. Also, mapped are 479 hydroelectric generating stations (power plant).

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Generating Stations, 2007 - Technology

A generating station is an industrial facility built and operated to generate electricity. The map shows the 916 generating stations (power plants) operating in 2007. There were 479 hydroelectric stations, 375 thermal plants (combustion, internal combustion and steam), 7 nuclear plants, 54 wind turbines and 1 tidal power plant.

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Electricity Generation and Transmission

Contained within the 5th Edition (1978 to 1995) of the National Atlas of Canada is a map that shows the generating stations (by size, type and status) and transmission lines (by voltage category). A table lists all stations giving name, operator and other data.

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Infrastructure

Pipeline Infrastructure (2006)

There are approximately 100,000 kilometres of transmission pipelines in Canada, 80,000 are natural gas pipelines and 23,000 crude oil pipelines. The map shows three types of pipelines: transmission trunk lines, gathering system field lines and distribution lines.

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Aerodromes and Airports (2006)

The air transportation infrastructure consists of airports, aerodromes and the civilian Air Navigation System (ANS). There are approximately 1775 aerodromes in Canada. On the map, they are categorized into three types of aerodromes: land airports and aerodromes (for rotary-wing or fixed-wing aircraft); water bases (for float planes); and heliports (for helicopters).

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Marine Transportation Infrastructure - Ports (2006)

Canada is a maritime nation with access to three oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic), and shared access to the longest inland waterway system in the world, the Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway system of waterways. The map shows approximately 590 major ports, the Seaway (including major locks) and vessel traffic service zones.

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Rail Network, 2006

In 2006 there were 48,068 kilometres of railways, stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans. The two largest Class 1 carriers, Canadian National Railway Company (CN) which owns or leases 22,686 kilometres of railways and Canadian Pacific Rail Company (CPR) which owns or leases 12,812 kilometres. The regional and shortline railways combined, own or lease a total of 11,734 kilometres.

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Road Network, 2006

The 1.1 million kilometres of roads shown on the map form a national road network that connects people and goods from one community to another in Canada and to the rest of the continent. On the map, roads are classified based on the population of the communities the roads connect; combined, the communities on the map represent 78% of the total population in 2001.

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