- Publications Issued by the Geological Survey of Canada
- The Publication Process
- First Steps
- Writing the Formal Report
- Guidelines for Figure Preparation
- Guidelines for Cataloguing Photographs
- The Author's Responsibility
- Critical Review of Manuscript
- GSC Contributions
- Selected Bibliography
Although no person can tell another how to write a report, guidance can be given and suggestions made. Because writing is very much an expression of personality, the result of imposing rigid guidelines is a factual, but uninteresting report. A writer, however, should never forget that the main aim is information transfer; one believes that what is found or deduced is worthy of a larger audience. To accomplish this aim requires, above all, conciseness and clarity. From the opening lines of the abstract to the concluding sentence of the summary, these qualities should never be forgotten.
Scientific reports need not be stilted, although they are not likely to rival a best-selling novel. They must, however, be logical, and every successful report has been written around a clear and concise outline. This outline should be developed as soon as the decision has been made to write the report. It enables the author to identify the principal topics to be covered, to see if their treatment will proceed logically, and to identify any gaps in the research. The outline, modified to some degree, will become the contents page.
Before writing a report the author should look at similar, previously published GSC reports. It is advantageous for GSC reports to follow more or less similar plans. This makes it easier for the reader to find their way around, and assists the author in presenting material in an orderly sequence.
Although the allowable bulletin formats have varied widely in the past, there are currently two styles of bulletins now published by the GSC.
Multi-author, multipaper bulletin (compendium volume)
This type of bulletin is published as a collection of papers, in the style of printed Current Research volumes, or Bulletin 547 -- The Physical Environment of the Mackenzie Valley, Northwest Territories: a Base Line for the Assessment of Environmental Change. There are no chapters in Bulletins. Each paper has its own abstract (max. 150 words), introduction, acknowledgments, and reference list. The volume has a summary. An introduction to the volume is optional, but if chosen, is treated like the other papers in the volume, with its own citation. Acknowledgments appear as a section immediately preceding the references. Each author is referenced in other publications as author of an individual paper in the book. Authors referencing other papers in the same volume do so by citing the authors' names and the year of publication, and the full reference to the other paper appears in the references. This type of bulletin usually has an editor or co-ordinator, and can be referenced in other publications in its entirety by citing the editor/co-ordinator.
This type of bulletin has one or more authors writing on a single subject. Sections of the manuscript are major headings, not chapters. The volume has one abstract (max. 250 words), a summary, and an introduction. Acknowledgments follow the introduction. Authors share credit for the entire bulletin when it is referenced in other publications. An example is Bulletin 551 (Thorleifson and Garrett -- Lithology, Mineralogy, and Geochemistry of Glacial Sediments Overlying Kimberlite at Smeaton, Saskatchewan).
The manuscript packages should consist of double-spaced text, paper copies of figures, tables, captions, and appendices, as well as the digital files of all material.
The title should be concise and informative. Most likely, it may be the first reference to the report that a reader sees, and so the title should be able to rivet that person's attention. The content of the report should be apparent from the title, which should therefore include the subject, where applicable, geological age, and geographic location, including province or territory, but not NTS. Note that in most instances 'Canada' need not be stated.
The title should start with a key word and not with unnecessary words or phrases like 'A', 'A note on', 'An assessment of the', 'Preliminary report on', or 'The'.
Hanging titles, that is auxiliary titles following a colon or a dash after a main title, are not GSC style and should be avoided where possible.
Unless published together, it is preferable not to use labels such as 'Part 1', 'Part 2', or 'Report 1', 'Report 2', since there is no certainty that circumstances governing the eventual publication of a second installment, such as government funding or divisional approval, will allow it. Therefore, to avoid possible confusion, instead of using, for example:
Geology of the Hopedale block of Nain Province, Labrador: Report 1
use a more descriptive title for each part as follows:
Geology of the Florence Lake-Hopedale areas, Hopedale block of Nain Province, Labrador
Geology of the Nain-Makkovik boundary zone, Hopedale block of Nain Province, Labrador
Omission of 'Report 1' and 'Report 2' improves the titles and provides more information to assist librarians in cataloguing the reports. The titles could be further improved by providing, where possible, an indication of geological age (e.g. 'Archean geology of the Florence Lake...').
Short titles are preferable. Avoid using several compound words to modify a noun in a title, e.g. 'heavily sedimented back-arc basin', and do not use nouns as adjectives 'Ocean Disposal Symposium'.
National Topographic System (NTS)
National Topographic System map-sheet designations are not to appear in the title, but reference must, however, be made to them on the title page, or in the abstract, summary, and/or introduction, as they assist librarians and indexers, as well as users, in locating an otherwise obscure place name.
Authors should be consistent in the use of their surnames and initials throughout their careers. Changes in surname and initials cause confusion in the work of fellow scientists, librarians, and bibliographers, as a literature search will not identify all of an author's work. Omission of an initial is a remarkably common error!
Although the GSC has no objection to authors using a principal given name and initials, rather than just initials, authors should note that they are identified solely by surname and initials in GSC references and in recommended citations.
Only the author's initials and surname appear on the cover and title page, unless ambiguity would result (e.g. two authors with the same surname and initial(s)).
In a co-authored publication the senior author, who is normally the project leader responsible for organizing and assembling the entire report, is listed first. Other authors are then listed in alphabetical order if they have made equally significant contributions to the publication, or are listed in the decreasing order of the importance of their contribution. All co-authors are required to indicate, in writing, that they have read and agree with the information appearing in the contribution they have co-authored; a photocopy of the agreement must accompany the manuscript submitted to the Data Dissemination Division.
Where each author named has made a major and equal contribution, both to the research and to the writing of the report, the names are usually arranged alphabetically.
Where one or more authors in a multi-author bulletin are responsible for collecting the papers for the volume and working with the Scientific Editing Unit, they are listed as the bulletin's editors. They act as liaison between the Scientific Editing Unit and the authors: they are responsible for getting the papers and illustrations from the contributors to the Scientific Editing Unit, distributing the edited copies to the authors, and ensuring that the authors' answers to the scientific editor's queries get back to the Scientific Editing Unit. They may also edit the papers in the bulletin to ensure uniformity of style.
Compiler is a term used mostly in A-series maps and open file maps. A compiler is considered responsible for collecting the information for a work, but his/her input of new scientific material is minimal. Compiler would be an appropriate term for a primary scientific contact who does not take on the tasks inherent in the volume editor role (see above).
Scientific and technical staff may contribute data in the form of age determinations, rock or mineral analyses, fossil identification, paleomagnetic information, petrography, etc. Where possible, these data should be grouped together in tabular form or as an appendix, preferably as a separate item at the end of the report, under the name of the researcher, so that, if necessary, the results can be cited in other publications.
Where this is not possible, and where such contributions are scattered throughout the text, then there should be proper acknowledgment in each case, for example, 'These rocks were studied by J.M. Jones of the Geological Survey of Canada, who reported as follows...'.
Tables of analytical or other data should clearly state the name of the laboratory where the work was done, with the analyst's name (if applicable), the method used, and with laboratory identification numbers.
A preface is no longer a requirement in GSC bulletins or other reports. In cases of publications of special importance one may be requested. It indicates the reason for the study, how the report helps meet departmental objectives, and briefly states the nature of the report. The preface is not an abstract and may not contain figures, tables, illustrations, or reference citations.
The preface is signed off by the senior manager of the Geological Survey of Canada and also serves to give official approval to the report. The preface precedes the contents page.
For monographs, 'contents' lists the principal headings of the report and concludes with a list of tables and illustrations (figures and maps), indicating any items that are 'in pocket'. Normally, headings lower than fourth order or repetitive headings are not listed in the contents page of the published report, but the manuscript copy must show the relative importance of all headings used. The order of headings is shown in the contents section by successive indentations:
Paleontology and biostratigraphy
- Middle Cambrian
- Late Cambrian
- Early Ordovician
- Middle Ordovician
- Cambrian trilobites
Chapters, sections, subsections, etc. are not normally numbered in GSC reports (large comprehensive reports such as the 'Geology of Canada' series are the exception), unlike the procedure followed in some scientific journals.
The usual order for the contents page is:
The main body of the text
Figures (including photographs)
Captions for figures and other illustrations listed in the Contents should be only one or two lines long and should not include references. Subdivisions of figures a, b, c should be replaced with one concise description. The complete caption shown in the text need not be used in most cases.
For compendium volumes, 'Contents' lists the titles of the individual contributions and authors.
In certain instances a foreword may be included in a GSC publication. It follows the table of contents. The foreword commonly precedes the summary to a multi-authored volume and is usually written by the editor or compiler of the volume. It may contain figures, acknowledgments, and references in cases where it replaces an introduction.
Abstracts must be submitted with all GSC monographs, and with all contributions to Current Research and compendium volumes. They should be written in complete sentences and have a maximum length of 250 words (a maximum of 150 words for Current Research or compendium volume papers). Longer abstracts will be cut to the required length or, time permitting, will be returned to the author to be shortened. A well written abstract enables a reader to decide if the entire report should be read. The abstract should be a concise statement of the report. The title should not be repeated. Abstracts of reports on experimental work should list quantitative conclusions.
No figures, tables, illustrations, or reference citations are permitted in GSC abstracts.
Abstracts are translated into French and the translation (résumé) is published with the report.
Some excellent pointers on writing abstracts appear in articles written over the years, some extracts of which are provided here:
...The abstract should comprise a brief and factual summary of the contents and conclusions of the paper, refer to any new information which it may contain, and give an indication of its relevance. It should enable the busy reader to decide more surely than he can from the mere title of the paper whether it merits his reading....Use complete sentences rather than a mere listing of headings... Because the title of the paper usually is read as part of the abstract, the opening sentence should be framed accordingly so as to avoid repetition of the title. If, however, the title is not sufficiently indicative, the opening sentence should indicate the subjects covered. Usually, the beginning of an abstract should state the objects of the investigation...The abstract should indicate newly observed facts, conclusions..., and, if possible, the essential parts of any new theory... (Royal Society of London, 1966).
...in terms of market reached, the abstract is the most important part of the paper. For every individual who reads [a] paper, from 10 to 500 will read the abstract... The abstract should be a condensation and concentration of the essential information in the paper (Landes, 1966).
To improve access in both official languages to the published output of the GSC's scientific programs, all manuscripts for publication in the Bulletin series must be accompanied by a summary that will be printed in English and French. Reports that are to be released in both official languages do not require a summary. The latter category includes reports of general interest, broad economic impact, and those dealing with Canada-wide topics.
The length of the summary should be related to the length of the report (3–5%), but should be a minimum 1.5 of double-spaced word-processed pages.
No figures, tables, illustrations or reference citations are permitted in summaries.
Examples of summaries can be found in any recent GSC bulletin.
A clear statement of the project objectives and how the project contributes to the work of the GSC should appear in the opening paragraph of the introduction. The nature and scope of the study should be described briefly in the introduction. Other topics that are commonly presented in this section are the location and size of the area, access, economic significance of the area, and physical features.
These are made collectively at one place in the report, either at the end of the introduction or, as in the case of Current Research and compendium papers, as a first order heading on its own before 'References'.
Colleagues at the GSC who have critically reviewed the manuscript or contributed major assistance are mentioned. Field, laboratory, and technical support is recorded. Family, friends, and pets should not be acknowledged unless they have contributed in the actual preparation of the report.
Assistance rendered by persons not connected with the GSC is acknowledged with restrained expressions of gratitude. This includes outside agencies, such as exploration companies, and sources of financial or logistical support other than the GSC.
Confidential or unpublished data and specimens provided by colleagues and private companies must be noted.
In the case of major collaborative projects such as Mineral Development Agreements, the NATMAP project, LITHOPROBE, etc., the goal is to standardize acknowledgments as much as possible. For example, acknowledgments of the NATMAP project in text manuscript of any kind (papers, bulletins, open files, etc.) should be in the form:
whereas acknowledgments on maps should include the NATMAP logo and the project title; logos developed for individual project files should not be included. The Data Dissemination Division routinely provides guidelines and advice to authors for placement and relative size of permissible logos and the manner by which partners should be acknowledged (e.g. the provincial and territorial surveys).
The subject matter of most reports can be subdivided. Except for major volumes, common text subdivisions, such as the chapter, are not used in GSC reports, where different heading weights are instead used to indicate individual report sections' relationship to one another and respective importance in the text.
Even if not formally designated 'Introduction', it commonly proves useful to devote the opening paragraph of each major section to a brief statement of what the section contains.
The various parts of a report commonly pass from the general (Introduction, General geology, etc.) to the specific and back to the general (Conclusions). Most parts of a report reflect conceptual links and care should be taken to ensure that the writing reflects these links.
Do not cross-reference using page number, use section title instead.
Although the number of reports concerned with regional geology has decreased, many reports still warrant a section devoted to this topic. Normally it is divided into three principal parts: general statement, table of formations, and description of formations.
This is usually brief, though in particular cases it may be expanded to advantage. Its principal purposes are first, to outline the regional geological setting and second, to present in summary a picture of the local geology, with special emphasis on discoveries of outstanding interest. Details should be avoided and conclusions given without supporting evidence.
Table of formations
The word 'formation' as used here and in the table of formations is employed in a general sense to include rocks of all types, whether sedimentary, volcanic, intrusive, or metamorphic, which together or separately constitute a map unit. As such it must be distinguished from the word 'formation' as more properly employed to designate a lithological map unit of sedimentary or volcanic origin.
Few features in the report require greater attention to detail than the table of formations, as few pages will be referred to more frequently for a tabular summary of the geology of the area. All rocks, whether mappable or not, should be included and arranged in their assumed stratigraphic positions. The nature of the contacts between successive rock units should be indicated, where possible, by such terms as unconformity, disconformity, intrusive contact, gradational contact, relations unknown, etc. Four columns generally are employed: for era, period or epoch, the name of the formation, and lithology. Where thicknesses are known or have been estimated, these can be shown in the column containing the formation names.
In preparing the table of formations the exact form, as shown in other recent reports, should be followed, including capitalization, punctuation, and indentations. Hypothetical examples are shown in Figure 1a-d.
Description of formations
Formations are described in order, from oldest to youngest, and generally in the same order as on the map legend and in the table of formations. Sometimes, however, the sedimentary and volcanic rocks are described first, and the intrusive rocks are taken up in order on succeeding pages.
The GSC follows the North American Stratigraphic codes in principle, but not necessarily absolutely. However, variations from the code can only be made with the approval of, or as the result of recommendations by, the Scientific Editing Unit in consultation with GSC paleontologists.
Section descriptions. Bed-by-bed descriptions of stratigraphic sections are an important and necessary supporting part of some reports. Such descriptions, however, are commonly voluminous and very expensive to publish. Current GSC practice is as follows:
- Columnar section descriptions of type sections, principal reference sections, etc., if of reasonable, but not excessive, length, may be included in the main body of the paper without reduction in type size. Longer columnar sections in this category will be treated as in point 2 below.
- Columnar section descriptions of support sections, if of reasonable, but not excessive, length, may be included as an appendix (or appendices), of reduced type size.
- Excessively long columnar sections may be reproduced as a GSC open file from the author's original typescript and referenced in the printed report. It is, therefore, essential that described sections should be accurately and carefully prepared.
Much editorial time is spent in reorganizing rock unit descriptions and in eliminating errors of description, thickness totals, and metric conversions. Each unit or bed should be described in a logical manner with consistent functions as follows:
Although all section measurements must now be made in metres, it should be borne in mind that, until the 1970s, most sections were measured in feet and inches. As comparisons commonly have to be made with the older published sections, it is a great convenience for the reader to have the conversions available in the text. In addition, it is most useful, particularly to the editor, if the author identifies the original system of measurement.
As most sections are measured from the base up, but are described from the top down, certain ambiguities sometimes creep into the printed section, and should be avoided wherever possible. For example, do not state that the dolostone of unit 64 is the same as the dolostone described under unit 41, as the reader has not yet read the description of unit 41. Instead, if economy of space is required, describe unit 64 in detail, and then state that the dolostone of unit 41 is the same as the dolostone of unit 64. Similarly, describe the basal contact of each unit, as this leads naturally down into the next unit described.
Authors are describing sections for the reader, and since different readers are looking for different levels of information, section description should be readable at different levels. For example, many readers are simply looking for the distribution and nature of, or variations in, the basic rock types in a particular member or formational sequence. For this reason, it is very important that the rock types stand out from the detailed text – as they do in Figures 1c and 1d.
Some authors sometimes describe complex, interbedded sequences as one unit, with the result that individual rock types tend to fade into the background, and descriptions are confusing. To avoid this, the following arrangement is recommended.
When discussing subsurface sections, which are normally measured from the top down, some authors reverse the time sequence of events, particularly when dealing with the transition from one environment to another. For example, in the case of a marine Cretaceous shale overlying a nonmarine Triassic sequence, it is obviously incorrect to state that at the beginning of the Cretaceous there was a marine regression and the area became a desert. At that time, there was a marine transgression as continental gave way to marine conditions. Remember that, regardless of the direction in which a section is measured, the sequence of events only has validity in one direction, from older to younger strata.
Identified fossils should be listed by name under the description of the bed(s) in which they were found and the registered GSC locality number (see 'Paleontology') should be given.
The GSC now mainly publishes coloured maps, released as printed copies and open files produced on demand. Base maps for field compilation and publication are usually at the standard scales of 1:50 000, 1:100 000, 1:250 000, etc., although for special purposes they may be rescaled to facilitate fieldwork or the release of information.
Details on geoscientific map production are available on this web page:
Cartographic Design Specifications
The unit designators for a map should follow the convention historically used by the GSC. The first symbol of the map unit is an age designator. The GSC special font is used as reference letters to symbolize a geological age. The following modifiers are placed on the left side of the age symbol Early, E; Middle, M; Late, L; lower, l; middle, m; upper, u. Scaled down capital letters designate Group, Formation, or Member (see Cambrian Trout Brook Formation on example legend). Lower case letters designate lithology and/or mineralogy. Take care not to duplicate unit designators. See "GSC age designators" section at URL above.
Authors are responsible for ensuring that all geographic names used in the text are shown on the manuscript map. They are advised to consult their peers, division co-ordinators, and cartographic and editorial staff about map production. A wide variety of recently published examples of similar geological maps should be examined, paying particular attention to map legends.
Authors are now listed prominently in the credits portion of maps. This section should also list any other people who worked on the map, and list who did what and when.
Authors: J. Shaw and D.P. Potter
Multibeam bathymetric data collected by J. Shaw and D.P. Potter, 2005.
Multibeam bathymetric data compiled by J. Shaw and D.P. Potter, 2005–2006.
Authors: M.R. St-Onge, D.J. Scott, D. Corrigan, and N. Wodicka
Geology by M.R. St-Onge, D. Corrigan, F. Berniolles, K. Dubach, S. Modeland, J. Robillard, J. Stacey, J. Chakungal, S. Gagné, C. Hogue, C. Huerbert, A. Simmons, E. de Kemp, and D. Snyder (2000), M.R. St-Onge, M. Allan, F. Berniolles, K. Dubach, J. Gladstone, S. Johns, B. Sharpe, J. Stacey, S. Gagné (2001), Geological Survey of Canada; D.J. Scott (2000, 2001), Canada-Nunavut Geoscience Office; D.M. Carmichael and H. Helmstaedt (2000), Queen's University; D. Francis (2000), McGill University
Paleozoic geology from report by H.P. Trettin (Geological Survey of Canada, Map 1406A, Bulletin 251); drift cover not shown
U-Pb radiometric age dates and geological compilation by M.R. St-Onge, D.J. Scott, and D. Corrigan (2004)
Geochronological information from N. Wodicka (unpub. data, 2004)
Digital cartography by E. Everett, Earth Sciences Sector Information Division (ESS Info)
Text figures include line drawings and photographs. The use of colour is discouraged unless absolutely essential to communicate the science as the government-endorsed 'no frills' publishing policy insists on the adoption of cost-effective methods for presenting and producing information. All figures should be referred to in the text in numerical order. Figures should be submitted in a form suitable for direct reproduction (digital files are preferred) and are printed at the same scale (see Guidelines for Figure Preparation).
Perhaps the principal feature to bear in mind in preparing figures, aside from the question of their necessity in a report, is that only the essential information should be shown. Omit all details not referred to in the text or that do not bear directly on the written account. If, for example, the author is describing the system of faults encountered at the surface and in several underground workings of a mining property, the drawing should not be cluttered with details of mine buildings, roads and trails, orebodies, or mine workings unrelated to the fault pattern. If the vein system on this property also requires illustrations, consider a separate figure to avoid clutter.
The directive arrow on a figure should indicate north. In general, a linear scale, or a natural scale, should be avoided and a bar scale used instead as it applies equally well whether the figure is enlarged or reduced from the original drawing. At least one latitude and longitude must be present on the figure if applicable.
Separate lists of full captions and short captions should always be furnished for monographs. The briefer titles are used in the list of illustrations provided for the table of contents at the beginning of the report. Ensure that all figures and tables are cited in order at least once (this does not apply to appendices). Do not waste time lettering the title within the figure; all titles (and captions) form part of the text and will be indicated as part of the production process.
Italic font is used for names of water bodies. Caps and case are preferred for labels within a figure; the first letter of the string and any proper nouns are capitalized. Avoid using initialisms and abbreviations; if they must be used, explain them in the caption. Full caps may be used in a label if the point is to show an association between a group of elements, e.g. labelling of geological provinces on a figure.
With the exception of grouped photographs of fossils, which are called 'Plates' in GSC publications, all photographs are referred to as 'Figures'. Photographs should be forwarded unmounted. Do not use overlays. Plates should be mounted on stiff cardboard. All lettering and identification should be on the plate when submitted. Plate size for size-as reproduction is 18 by 23 cm (including plate number).
Photographs intended for publication should be submitted with complete caption, and the figure caption should indicate the name of the photographer. Photographs of human subjects can be used only if permission to reproduce their likeness is obtained from the person in question or if they cannot be recognized at printed scale.
The following points should be considered when selecting photographs:
- Originals should be technically good photographs. Little can be done with an underexposed landscape shot. Remember that some clarity will be lost during printing.
- Panoramic shots, however useful in the office, suffer when reduced to page size. They are too long for their width and end up as narrow strips in which most detail has been lost.
- Uncatalogued photographs will only be reproduced when credited to another source.
- If a particular illustration seems worthy to publish, then the chances are someone else will want to use it. However, to have a GSC photograph catalogued, the author should use forms PUB 3013 and 3014 in the ESSPPI system and guidelines prepared by the Scientific Editing Unit. (To view samples of these forms, go to the Forms page.) Without a number, the Photo Library cannot meet outside requests. The series number should be clearly indicated on all airphotos (e.g. NAPL T 127L-182).
- Photomicrographs are not catalogued.
- Do not over-illustrate. Only photographs that contribute materially to the subject of the report should be selected. Reference must be made to all photographs as figure or plate at least once in the text.
- Prints must be in good condition without cracks or metal clip marks as these are flaws that cannot be eradicated.
- Do not write unnecessarily on the back of a photograph. A hard pencil will create an embossed effect. Use a soft pencil or stabilo pencil to note the figure number. Indicate which way is 'top'.
Scales should be present in all photographs:
- Use a bar scale on photomicrographs rather than stating magnifications. This obviates the chance of a misleading caption should the scale of the photomicrograph be changed for printing.
- A rock hammer or compass provides a good scale in outcrop photographs. If using a coin for scale, add diameter in caption. Avoid using people for scale as clearance must be received from that person to use their photograph in a publication.
Tables should be submitted in digital and hard-copy form using the WordPerfect table format or Excel. Tables will not be rekeyed. They are given arabic numbers. Titles should be short. Do not make a simple list into a table. If the report includes a large number of tables, or very extensive tables, these should be gathered together and presented as appendix material, or even considered for separate Open File release.
Remember that good, clear tables that can be easily read are an important part of a scientific report.
This section follows the main body of the text and is described in the section entitled 'References', which also deals with the author-date citation used in the text to refer the reader to the References list.
An appendix placed after the References is the place for detailed information that does not readily form part of the main report. Long tables, stratigraphic sections, locality lists, analyses, and numerical data are examples of typical appendices that should be lettered. However, to lower printing costs and to reduce the size of a report, lengthy supporting data should be released in an open file that is referenced in the report. Data that must accompany a publication as an appendix can be submitted as digital files that, once edited, can be released with the publication on diskette or CD-ROM.
Footnotes are not used in GSC reports, except for author addresses and affiliations, in compendium Bulletins, and funding statements in Current Research. Other programs, such as SPS programs can be mentioned in the Acknowledgments section of the report.
Detailed comments or explanations that are necessary for the completeness of the text should be incorporated into the text offset by parentheses. When critical pertinent information becomes known to the author after the report is written or is in the proof stage, additional material can be incorporated as an addendum at the end of the report, rather than as a footnote.
Authors should inform editorial staff if their report or map is the product of co-operative projects (such as Mineral Development Agreements) involving the GSC with other federal, provincial, or external agencies. This will ensure that the appropriate logos and wording, conforming to departmental standards and standing agreements, can be added to the publication (see 'Acknowledgments' above).
The special requirements of paleontological reports are described in the section entitled 'Paleontology'.
If an index is required, the editor will ask the author to highlight index entries at the same time the page proofs are checked by the latter.
Personal names, geographic names, names of mining companies, names of rocks and minerals, geological processes, and geological units and provinces are those commonly included (see also Public Works and Government Services, 1997).