2-cycle Testing

Fuel consumption values are derived from the emissions generated during two laboratory driving cycles – a city test and a highway test.

The city test simulates urban driving in stop-and-go traffic with an average speed of 34 km/h and a top speed of 90 km/h. The test runs for approximately 31 minutes and includes 23 stops. The test begins from a cold engine start, which is similar to starting a vehicle after it has been parked overnight during the summer. The final phase of the test repeats the first eight minutes of the cycle but with a hot engine start. This simulates restarting a vehicle after it has been warmed up, driven and then stopped for a short time. Over five minutes of test time are spent idling, to represent waiting at traffic lights.

City Test Parameters

Test Cell Temperature 20°-30°C
Total time 31 minutes, 14 seconds
Distance 17.8 km
Top speed 90 km/h
Average speed 34 km/h
Maximum acceleration 5.3 km/h per second
Number of stops 23
Idling time 18% of total time
Engine start* Cold

The highway test simulates a mixture of open highway and rural road driving, with an average speed of 78 km/h and a top speed of 97 km/h. The test runs for approximately 13 minutes and does not include any stops. The test begins from a hot engine start.

Highway Test Parameters

Test Cell Temperature 20°-30°C
Total time 12 minutes, 45 seconds
Distance 16.5 km
Top Speed 97 km/h
Average Speed 78 km/h
Maximum acceleration 5.2 km/h per second
Number of stops 0
Idling time 0
Engine start* Warm

The fuel consumption values derived from these tests cycles are adjusted upwards by 10% (city) and 15% (highway) to more accurately reflect real-world results.

*A vehicle’s engine does not achieve maximum fuel efficiency until it is warm.