5-cycle Testing

City and highway fuel consumption ratings are derived from the emissions generated during five laboratory driving cycles. The standard (2-cycle) city test and highway test are supplemented with three additional test cycles that account for cold temperature operation, air conditioner usage, and driving at higher speeds with more rapid acceleration and braking. This 5-cycle testing procedure better approximates typical driving conditions and behaviours.

The city test simulates urban driving in stop-and-go traffic with an average speed of 34 km/h and a top speed of 90 km/h. The test runs for approximately 31 minutes and includes 23 stops. The test begins from a cold engine start, which is similar to starting a vehicle after it has been parked overnight during the summer. The final phase of the test repeats the first eight minutes of the cycle but with a hot engine start. This simulates restarting a vehicle after it has been warmed up, driven and then stopped for a short time. Over five minutes of test time are spent idling, to represent waiting at traffic lights.

City Test Parameters

Test Cell Temperature 20°-30°C
Total time 31 minutes, 14 seconds
Distance 17.8 km
Top speed 90 km/h
Average speed 34 km/h
Maximum acceleration 5.3 km/h per second
Number of stops 23
Idling time 18% of total time
Engine start* Cold

The highway test simulates a mixture of open highway and rural road driving, with an average speed of 78 km/h and a top speed of 97 km/h. The test runs for approximately 13 minutes and does not include any stops. The test begins from a hot engine start.

Highway Test Parameters

Test Cell Temperature 20°-30°C
Total time 12 minutes, 45 seconds
Distance 16.5 km
Top speed 97 km/h
Average speed 78 km/h
Maximum acceleration 5.2 km/h per second
Number of stops 0
Idling time 0
Engine start* Warm

In the cold temperature operation test, the same driving cycle is used as in the standard city test, except that the ambient temperature of the test cell is set to -7°C.

Cold Temperature Test Parameters

Test Cell Temperature -7°C
Total time 31 minutes, 14 seconds
Distance 17.8 km
Top speed 90 km/h
Average speed 34 km/h
Maximum acceleration 5.3 km/h per second
Number of stops 23
Idling time 18% of total time
Engine start* Cold

In the air conditioning test, the ambient temperature of the test cell is raised to 35°C. The vehicle's climate control system is then used to lower the internal cabin temperature. Starting with a warm engine, the test averages 35 km/h and reaches a maximum speed of 88 km/h. Five stops are included, with idling occurring 19% of the time.

Air Conditioning Test Parameters

Test Cell Temperature 35°C
Total time 9 minutes, 56 seconds
Distance 5.8 km
Top speed 88 km/h
Average speed 35 km/h
Maximum acceleration 8.2 km/h per second
Number of stops 5
Idling time 19% of total time
Engine start* Warm

The high speed/quick acceleration test averages 78 km/h and reaches a top speed of 129 km/h. Four stops are included and brisk acceleration maximizes at a rate of 13.6 km/h per second. The engine begins warm and air conditioning is not used.

High Speed/Quick Acceleration Test Parameters

Test Cell Temperature 20°-30°C
Total time 9 minutes, 56 seconds
Distance 12.9 km
Top speed 129 km/h
Average speed 78 km/h
Maximum acceleration 13.6 km/h per second
Number of stops 4
Idling time 7% of total time
Engine start* Warm

*A vehicle’s engine does not achieve maximum fuel efficiency until it is warm.