Format of this Assessment

Including this 'Introduction', there are ten chapters in this volume, as well as an accompanying Synthesis Report.

Chapter 2, 'Background Information', contains reference material relevant to the entire report.?e various sections of this chapter provide 1) explanations of key concepts that recur throughout the subsequent chapters; 2) a review of the science related to the evidence for, and causes of, past climate change and variability, as well as projections of future climate change; 3) a broad overview of key factors relevant to understanding climate change impacts and adaptation in Canada, highlighting why these issues are relevant at local to national levels; and 4) a description of the approaches used in this assessment.

Chapters 3 to 8 are regional analyses focused on Northern Canada, Atlantic Canada, Quebec, Ontario, Prairies and British Columbia, and constitute the main body of the assessment. Each regional chapter discusses current and future climate, relevant socioeconomic trends, current sensitivities to climate, and the risks and opportunities presented by climate change (recognizing that there has generally been less research undertaken on opportunities). The regional chapters also discuss adaptation practices, options and planning. In recognition of the significant regional differences in the focus and volume of relevant information, these chapters do not follow a common template; rather, authors have structured each chapter to best capture regional circumstances. For example, considerably more focused information is available for Quebec than for many other regions, in large part due to the activities of the Ouranos Consortium since 2002, whose mandate explicitly includes consideration of adaptation issues. Similarly, the 'Northern Canada' chapter builds directly on the results of the 2005 Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, which represents a more recent and comprehensive synthesis than is available for the other regions. Similarities in structure between chapters include starting with a concise presentation of key findings that emerge from the main body of the chapter and concluding with a synthesis that focuses on adaptation issues. Case studies are used throughout these chapters to provide additional details regarding key issues, and to highlight recent and ongoing initiatives related to climate change adaptation. Chapter 9, 'Canada in an International Context', examines the potential implications of climate change impacts outside Canada for our country, as well as how impacts within our borders may affect our international relationships. This involves consideration of a wide range of issues, including trade, international development, immigration, tourism, security and sovereignty. Given the integrated nature of the global market place, the impacts of climate change outside of Canada are likely to have greater economic consequences for some sectors of the Canadian economy than the direct impact of climate change on Canadian operations. Nonetheless, research examining these impacts, and their implications for adaptation, is limited not only with respect to Canada but also for most countries of the world. Chapter 10, 'Moving Forward', builds on the previous chapters. The regional snapshots capture the state of understanding and readiness to undertake adaptation at one point in time. This concluding chapter examines possible future directions to address the adaptation needs identified both within the regional chapters and in other assessments of climate change impacts and adaptation.

Chapter 9, 'Canada in an International Context', examines the potential implications of climate change impacts outside Canada for our country, as well as how impacts within our borders may a ect our international relationships. This involves consideration of a wide range of issues, including trade, international development, immigration, tourism, security and sovereignty. Given the integrated nature of the global market place, the impacts of climate change outside of Canada are likely to have greater economic consequences for some sectors of the Canadian economy than the direct impact of climate change on Canadian operations. Nonetheless, research examining these impacts, and their implications for adaptation, is limited not only with respect to Canada but also for most countries of the world.

Chapter 10, 'Moving Forward', builds on the previous chapters. The regional snapshots capture the state of understanding and readiness to undertake adaptation at one point in time. This concluding chapter examines possible future directions to address the adaptation needs identified both within the regional chapters and in other assessments of climate change impacts and adaptation.