Many lines of scientific evidence show that the Earth's climate is changing. Using satellite and terrestrial networks, Earth Sciences Sector (ESS) carries out systematic long-term measurements of several indicators of change, including permafrost, glacier mass balance, and snow cover. Remote sensing provides information on lake and river ice, land cover, and biophysical parameters indicating the nature and extent of vegetation. Coastline change is monitored using remote techniques and field investigations. The observations generate new scientific results, are used to mitigate risk to development, and are incorporated into information products to meet national and international requirements.
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