Authorization Guidelines for Consumer and Display Fireworks

Authorization, Sampling, Composition, General and Detailed Requirements for Type F.1 and F.2 Fireworks

Explosives Regulatory Division
February 2010

These guidelines are written in accordance with
Part 3 of the proposed new Explosives Regulations
to be published under the Explosives Act (R.S., c. E-15, s. 1).

Where F.1 is mentioned, it refers to the current Canadian class 7.2.1, while F.2 and F.4 refer to the current Canadian class 7.2.2.


Table of Contents


1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Purpose

These guidelines have been prepared as a guide to industry and the public. They describe the safety requirements for the design and performance of fireworks.

Some companies experience difficulties in having their products added to the list of authorized explosives. Often this occurs because the process or the intent of the legislation is not fully understood. These guidelinesss explains the process of authorization and provides the information needed to complete and file a submission.

1.2 Scope

These guidelinesss applies to fireworks used in commercial (i.e., non-military) applications. It sets out the general and detailed requirements for consumer fireworks (class F.1), display fireworks (F.2) and some fireworks accessories (F.4). Class F.3 fireworks (pyrotechnic special effects) are not covered by these guidelinesss.

1.2.1 Class F.1

Class F.1 comprises low-hazard fireworks (consumer fireworks) generally used for recreation, such as fountains, wheels, Roman candles, sparklers, Christmas crackers, volcanoes, mines, snakes and toy pistol caps.

These fireworks are for use outdoors. They carry minimum risk outside a 5-metre radius when used according to the instructions. However, they are not toys and must only be used by adults. In spite of all warnings, children do sometimes gain access to and misuse fireworks. Consequently, these criteria are provided to define fireworks that minimize risk, even when misused. The quantity of composition is limited and certain types of fireworks are denied authorization.

1.2.2 Class F.2

Class F.2 comprises high-hazard display fireworks used for recreation, such as display shells, barrages, batteries, fountains, exhibition candles, flares, set-pieces, maroons, wheels, bouquets and firecrackers. These may only be purchased by persons with a valid fireworks certificate.

1.2.3 Class F.4

Class F.4 comprises fireworks accessories, such as electric matches or portfires. Such articles may only be purchased by persons with a valid fireworks certificate.

1.3 Authorization Process

The Explosives Act and associated regulations govern explosives and pyrotechnics in the interest of public and worker safety. In order to legally manufacture, store, possess or transport fireworks within Canada or import fireworks into Canada, the articles must be included in the list of authorized explosives. This is termed Aauthorization.@ The Explosives Act provides for a Chief Inspector of Explosives who, by regulation, is required to authorize explosives or pyrotechnics only if satisfied regarding its safety.

1.3.1 Steps in the Authorization Process

The authorization and classification process comprises the following steps:

  1. The manufacturer or authorized applicant submits a hard copy of the following documents to the Explosives Regulatory Division (ERD):
  1. Application form completed and signed by the manufacturer or authorized applicant;
  2. A letter from the manufacturer authorizing the applicant to act on their behalf, if applicable;
  3. List of product numbers and the corresponding product names;
  4. Technical drawings of the products, including dimensions, charge weights of all explosive components, gross weight of the product, construction materials, and tolerances for charge weights and dimensions;
  5. Compositions of all explosive components with tolerances;
  6. Drawings of packaging;
  7. Example of labelling, safety warnings and instructions for use in both English and French;
  8. The name of the company under which the products will appear on the list of authorized explosives;
  9. The applicable fee to review the new authorization request (payable within 30 days after the date of the invoice from the Department of Natural Resources). Refer to the ERD website for details on the fee schedule.
  1. The ERD reviews the application. Authorization may be granted at this stage.
  2. The ERD determines which articles from a submission will be tested, if any.
  3. If necessary, the ERD and the Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory (CERL) develop a test plan specifying sample requirements, estimates of cost and completion date. The applicant decides whether or not to proceed with the test plan.
  4. Testing and reporting is done by the CERL in accordance with the test plan.
  5. Based on the results and the documentation filed, the ERD decides to grant or deny the authorization request and advises the applicant of the decision by letter.
  6. If authorization is granted, the explosives are added to the list of authorized explosives.
  7. The explosives subsequently may be sampled and tested to assess their suitability for continuing authorization.

It is important to emphasize that the drawings and specifications become binding legal documents supporting authorization. No changes may be made to the authorized article without prior approval from the ERD and a corresponding approved change to the authorized drawing or specifications.

1.3.2 Criteria for Authorization

During the authorization process, the ERD determines whether the fireworks meet the Canadian requirements and whether the company is able to reproducibly conform to its own drawings and specifications. It is imperative that every article meets the manufacturer=s drawings and specifications. First, the drawing represents the product to be authorized. Second, it provides an indication of the quality control exercised within the company. Good quality control is an indication of the continuing safety of the item in question. The detailed criteria and requirements are provided later in these guidelinesss.

It is impossible to define with certainty what can and cannot be authorized. The final decision always rests with the Chief Inspector of Explosives. It is possible that a new design of a firework may meet all the criteria and requirements and yet be unsafe.

1.3.3 Repeated Requests for Authorization

It is not in the interests of the Canadian public to review, test and retest submissions for types of articles from companies whose products continue to fail or whose submissions demonstrate consistently poor quality. The purpose of this process is to assure public safety. Poor quality products and documents show that the manufacturer has not been able to meet this objective. Therefore, the following will apply:

  1. A new company or associated company which fails a second repeat (three attempts in total) for a type of fireworks (e.g., Roman candles) will not be permitted to submit that type of product for authorization for five years.
  2. Companies or associated companies with products already on the list of authorized explosives will be allowed two repeats for a total of three attempts per type of fireworks. After the third failure for a given type of fireworks, unless the product is redesigned and evidence to this effect is presented, such product will not be considered for authorization again.

1.3.4 Continuing Acceptability

1.3.4.1 Continuing Authorization Auditing

Companies located in Canada will be audited to determine what manufacturing controls are used in order to ensure that a product consistently meets the drawings, specifications and requirements. Foreign manufacturers will either be audited or subject to continuing authorization testing.

1.3.4.2 Continuing Authorization Testing

Samples may be picked from the field or requested from the manufacturer at any time and subjected to testing. The cost of such testing is borne by the Government of Canada.

All samples must be faithful to the authorized drawings. Failure to meet these drawings is cause for revocation of the authorization.

1.3.5 Loss of Authorization

The following are grounds for deleting a product from the list of authorized explosives:

  1. discovery of a change, to the product or packaging as declared in the original authorization;
  2. six months after any amendment of regulations, if such amendment affects any stipulations of the original authorization, unless provisions are made to sell off existing stock, the explosives will be deleted from the list;
  3. investigation of an accident or incident shows that the product design was the cause;
  4. discovery of a failure to report an accident or serious incident attributable to the articles if the failure was known to the manufacturer.

________________________
1 The original documentation submitted for authorization may specify substitutions or changes and fall within the scope of the original approval.

2 A new authorization application is required whenever a change is made which was not part of the original approval. Documentation and testing will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis.

1.3.6 Classification for Transport

In addition to authorization, fireworks must be classified for transport, that is, they must be assigned a UN number and hazard classification (1.1G, 1.2G, 1.3G, 1.4G or 1.4S). Classification exists in most countries, but not all countries use the equivalent of the Canadian authorization process.

Classification for transport is assigned through one or a combination of the following methods:

  1. testing,
  2. analogy to existing products,
  3. on the basis of the UN default fireworks classification table,
  4. in the case of imported articles, by acceptance of a letter from a competent authority in the country of origin.

Transport classification based on testing is the preferred approach. However, it is recognized that not all fireworks may be tested. In July 2004, a working group within the UN Committee on the Transport of Dangerous Goods approved a default classification for the transport of fireworks that have not been tested. This default classification was implemented by the ERD on September 1, 2005. When a company prefers a more favourable classification, it has the option of testing. Similarly, if the ERD believes that the default classification is inappropriate, it will require testing before a transport classification is granted (e.g., aerial colour shells over 155 mm but under 180 mm (with no more than 25% flash composition as loose powder and/or report effects)). In any case, display fireworks (F.2) will be given a 1.3G or more stringent classification, while consumer fireworks (F.1) will be granted either a 1.4G or 1.4S classification. Note that mixed loads within one package are to be classified as per the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act and Regulations.

________________________
3 Flash composition refers to pyrotechnic substances in powder form or as pyrotechnic units as used in the fireworks, which are used to produce an aural effect or used as a bursting charge or lifting charge, unless the time taken for the pressure rise is demonstrated to be more than 8 ms for 0.5 g of pyrotechnic substance in the HSL Flash Composition Test (Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and Criteria).

Classification testing is not to be confused with authorization testing. Some companies submitting articles for authorization do not know why samples are needed for testing, and state that the articles were tested already. However, the previous tests were conducted to determine the transport classification of the articles. Classification testing is carried out when the article is unusual or when a different hazard classification is sought than would otherwise be granted. These tests are described in the latest revision of the UN document entitled Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and Criteria. On the other hand, authorization testing is conducted to assess the company's ability to reproducibly conform to its own drawings and specifications, for example, packaging description, chemical analysis, thermal stability, functional tests, etc.

2. REQUEST FOR AUTHORIZATION

2.1 Submission

The following describes what must be present in a submission and how it will be evaluated. The application is a legal declaration made to the Government of Canada in order to obtain authorization. It is the first indication of the care a company exercises in producing a product of acceptable quality. Poor quality submissions make a negative impression.

Every application must be accompanied by the ASubmission Form for Authorization and Classification of Fireworks,@ properly completed. The latest version of this form is available upon request. The review process does not start until all information has been submitted.

2.1.1 List of Articles

Submissions must include a list of all the articles in the submission by name, effect, calibre and colour, preferably with an identifying product number. If more than one colour is associated with a given name or product number, list all the colours that are being submitted for each name or product number. Different colours, being different chemicals, are considered separate articles.

For submissions containing many articles (over 10), an electronic copy of the product names and product numbers must be supplied in Microsoft Excel. As shown in the example below, product numbers and product names must be listed in two separate columns. Borders or special characters must not be used.

Product No. Product Name
M123 Blue Mine
S879 Red Sparkler
BP-2 2-inch Blue Peony

2.1.2 Drawing

A drawing of each article is required. Two paper copies of each drawing are required. If the same construction is used for different sizes or colours, then one drawing may be used to represent the different articles. Drawings must be legible or they will not be considered. They must be submitted on paper only; electronic format drawings will not be accepted.

The drawings must include: dimensions, charge weights of all explosive components, gross weight of the article, construction materials, and tolerances for charge weights and dimensions. In the case of mines, cakes, barrages, etc., the charge weight of each individual explosive component in each individual tube must be clearly indicated.

Each submission must contain all the pertinent information; references to previous submissions are unacceptable.

2.1.3 Chemical Composition

The compositions of all explosive components must be given. This can be provided on the drawings or a reference may be made on the drawings to a table of compositions. All applicable documents must be submitted on paper only (two copies are required); electronic format will not be accepted.

Compositions must list all ingredients used and must give the percentages and the tolerances for each. The ingredients must be listed by their chemical names wherever possible. Generic names may be used only when the ingredient is best known by the generic name.

If an effect is composed of more than one composition, the manufacturer must provide the ingredients information for each composition used in the construction of the effect, e.g., ignition composition and colour composition for a primed star.

2.1.4 Packaging, Labelling and Safety Instructions

Drawings of packaging must be submitted and accompanied by certification test documents. Examples of labelling and instructions for safety and for use must be presented in both English and French. More details on the labels and markings to be used are given in the various appendices of these guidelinesss.

2.1.5 Intended Use of the Firework

A short description of the intended use of the firework is required, i.e., the applicant must specify if the item is a fountain, a Roman candle, a sound shell, a nautical shell, etc. The terminology used in the appendices must be referred to and used.

2.1.6 Reliability Statement

To demonstrate the reliability of the firework, the applicant should provide a summary of the test results obtained when the article was being developed and/or brought to market.

2.1.7 Transport Classification

When possible, the applicant should provide a certificate of transport classification from a competent authority. If the firework is not classified as per the UN default classification table (refer to section 1.3.6), the certificate/letter of classification must be supported by test results. If a certificate/letter of classification is not available, the default classification applies. The CERL may conduct classification testing at the request of the applicant.

2.1.8 Outsourcing

The applicant must so declare if any of the components of the fireworks are purchased from another source. In such cases, this must be indicated on the drawing and a reference to that source must be given. For example, if a fuse is purchased, a reference must be made to the type of fuse and from whom it was purchased; the composition must also be given. The ERD will decide whether a separate testing scheme for the outsourced material will be required.

3. CLASSIFICATION AND AUTHORIZATION REQUIREMENTS

This section describes the basis on which products will be given a classification and authorization.

3.1 Products Not Authorized in Canada

Certain articles and articles containing certain chemicals considered to be unsafe will not be authorized.

3.1.1 Articles

The articles that will not be authorized include:

  1. intended for indoor use, except Christmas crackers meeting these criteria;
  2. designed to be hand-held, except sparklers and hand-held fountains meeting these criteria;
  3. self-propelled from the ground and rising in the air with unpredictable flight paths or moving erratically;
  4. judged excessively violent;
  5. not properly labelled;
  6. having a history of injuries;
  7. trick and joke devices.

The following are examples of the above fireworks which will not be authorized:

  1. Ammunition for Tie-Clips, Cufflinks, Key Chain Pistols, etc.: This ammunition is a violent type of blank ammunition for use in novelty items. It is often designed to resemble toy pistol caps in metal cups.
  2. Auto-Foolers: Articles designed as a burglar alarm. When wired to the ignition system of a car, they operate with a loud screeching whistle followed by copious amounts of thick smoke, with or without an explosion. These articles can cause fires within the engine compartment.
  3. Cherry Bombs, M-80 and Silver Salutes, Flash Crackers: These are very violent firecrackers that often contain excessive charge weights and/or unacceptable fireworks compositions.
  4. Cigarette Loads: Small charges designed for insertion into the end of a cigarette or a cigar. When the heat from the embers reaches the charge, it explodes, ejects sparks, gives off obnoxious fumes, or creates Asnow.@
  5. Dancing Crackers: These are small charges designed to snap and crackle when stepped on. They are usually dropped on a dance floor.
  6. Exploding or Smoking Golf Balls: These are designed to look like golf balls. When impacted they either explode or emit copious amounts of coloured smoke generated by a pyrotechnic reaction.
  7. Firecrackers: These have been the source of many injuries and may only be authorized and classified as display fireworks (F.2) or as secondary effects. Special permission to use firecrackers must be obtained from the ERD.
  8. Helicopters (or similar items such as Aplanes,@Awhiz-bangs@ or Amissiles@): These articles are designed to rise in the air while spinning, often in an erratic way. Some helicopters function as soon as the article is ignited while others are first projected.
  9. Parachute Shells: Night-time parachute shells are not allowed due to their unpredictable paths. Daytime parachute shells displaying logos, banners and the like may be considered.
  10. Party Poppers: Small articles designed to eject streamers and/or small party favours. They are triggered by pulling a tape or string. Some are shaped and coloured to resemble champagne bottles and are called champagne poppers.
  11. Rockets (as opposed to model rockets): These have unpredictable paths and, in the case of rockets with a stick, they have been the cause of injuries when the guiding stick fell back to earth.
  12. Stink or Smoke Bombs: These articles are designed to resemble other fireworks, most often cherry bombs or salutes. They release a stench or coloured smoke, or both.
  13. Table Bombs: Articles that are designed to sit on a flat surface and, upon ignition, eject streamers and/or party favours.
  14. Table or Bottle Rockets: Small tubes or Arockets@ with propelling charges that are secured to a stick. When lit they rise out of the neck of a bottle, or from a pipe or a table top.
  15. Tear Gas Pens and Launchers: These can resemble a pen and may contain a mechanism activated by an explosive. They are supposedly for protection against muggers, but may be used as an offensive weapon or as a practical joke.
  16. Throw Downs (also called Snap Caps): Small objects designed to explode when thrown against a hard surface or stepped on.
  17. Trick Matches: These resemble ordinary book matches or boxed matches, but are designed to produce various effects when lit, including explosion, sparking, foul odour, Asnow,@ etc.

3.1.2 Chemicals Normally Precluding Authorization

The following chemicals are normally not allowed:

  • arsenic compounds - poisons;
  • boron - readily oxidizable;
  • chlorates with sulphur, sulphides, ammonium salts, elemental metals (such as magnesium or aluminum) or copper or soluble copper salts - such mixtures are friction-sensitive and liable to spontaneous combustion;
  • chromium and chromium compounds;
  • gallates or gallic acid - incompatible with many chemicals;
  • lead and lead compounds or salts - poisons;
  • mercury compounds - poisons;
  • phosphorus, except for red phosphorus in toy pistol caps;
  • picric acid and picrates - incompatible with many chemicals;
  • thiocyanates, except for snakes - explosively oxidizable;
  • zirconium - explosively oxidizable;
  • hexachlorobenzene (C6Cl6) (Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) No. 118-74-1);
  • any carcinogenic chemicals.

3.2 Chemical Stability

Stability is a chief consideration for authorization. The chemicals listed in section 3.2.1 are known as components of stable fireworks. It is recognized that not all articles submitted for authorization can be sampled to prove their stability. Samples will be required for any chemicals other than those listed in section 3.2.1 or if unusual combinations of any chemicals are presented.

3.2.1 Standard Chemicals in Fireworks

  • aluminum
  • ammonium perchlorate
  • antimony
  • antimony sulphide
  • barium carbonate
  • barium nitrate
  • barium sulphate
  • bismuth oxide
  • boric acid
  • calcium carbonate
  • calcium sulphate
  • magnesium carbonate
  • magnesium sulphate
  • nitrocellulose-based lacquers
  • red phosphorus (toy pistol caps only)
  • carbon or charcoal
  • copper metal
  • copper oxide
  • dextrine
  • hexamethylenetetramine
  • iron and iron alloys (ferro-titanium)
  • iron oxide
  • magnalium
  • magnesium

     
  • potassium or sodium benzoate
  • potassium hydrogen phthalate
  • potassium nitrate
  • potassium perchlorate
  • potassium sulphate
  • potassium teraphthalate
  • sodium bicarbonate
  • sodium nitrate
  • sodium salicylate
  • sodium sulphate
  • strontium carbonate
  • strontium nitrate
  • strontium sulphate
  • sulphur
  • titanium (mesh greater than 100)

Organic compounds (lactose, shellac, red gum, chlorinated paraffin and PVC B consisting of some combination of carbon with hydrogen, oxygen and/or chlorine and nitrogen) may be present if they account for less than 10% mass/mass of the compound.

3.3 Tolerances

The tolerances for chemical and physical characteristics and for dimensions and charge weights must be declared by the manufacturer. Where maximum or minimum sizes or weights are specified in these guidelinesss, that number must be the limit of the tolerance range.

For example, if the maximum diameter of a Roman candle (consumer firework) is specified as 22 mm, that number must be considered when stating tolerances. A diameter described as 22 mm "10% is not acceptable, since it means that diameters larger than 22 mm may be found.

3.3.1 Chemical Composition

Tolerances for chemicals must be less than "20% of the quantity for any component that represents less than 25% of the composition, and "10% of the quantity for any component that represents over 25% of the composition.

For example, if the quantity is 30%, and 10% of 30% is 3%, then the quantity and tolerance are specified as 30% "3%; if the quantity is 15%, and 20% of 15% is 3%, then the quantity and tolerance are specified as 15 "3%. Companies may use more stringent tolerances.

All ingredients declared must be present. Ingredients not declared must not be present.

3.3.2 Physical Dimensions

Tolerances for physical characteristics may be set by the company. They must be set so as not to interfere with proper function and must not be greater than "25% of the nominal dimensions.

3.3.3 Charge Weights

If maximum charge weights are specified in these guidelinesss, they must represent the maximum of the tolerance range. Otherwise, the following applies to charge weights:

Charge Weight Tolerance
under 10 g 25 %
over 10 g 10 %

3.4 Packaging

The minimum acceptable shipping package, weight limitations and tests for physical integrity are defined in the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act and Regulations, which in turn refer to the National Standard of Canada CAN/CGSB 43.151-97, Packaging of Explosives (Class 1) for Transportation.

3.4.1 Packaging for Samples

The sample must be shipped in its intended packaging with the appropriate labelling and instructions. Improper packaging will result in the failure of the submission. Packaging must comply with the National Standard of Canada CAN/CGSB 43.151-97, Packaging of Explosives (Class 1) for Transportation.

3.5 Marking and Labelling

3.5.1 Markings on the Package

The markings on the outer case used for transport must include:

  1. Markings required by the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act and Regulations, including the UN classification, proper UN shipping name (in either English or French), UN number, explosives label;
  2. Name and address of the manufacturer or importer or their authorized distributor;
  3. Name of the authorized explosives as per the list of authorized explosives (in either English or French);
  4. Product identification number, if any;
  5. Packaging registration number.

Any safety warnings and instructions for use written on the case must be in both English and French, clear, legible, and with equal prominence given to the two languages.

3.5.2 Markings on Individual Firework Articles

The labelling and markings on individual articles must conform to both the Consumer Packaging and Labelling Regulations and the Explosives Regulations. Every firework must carry, if physically practical:

  1. The authorized brand or trade name.
  2. The name, logo or code that identifies the manufacturer and/or authorized distributor.
  3. The instructions for use and safety warnings in both English and French (refer to the appendices for examples). Markings for instruction or safety must be clear and legible, and equal prominence must be given to the two languages. The labels are not required to repeat, word-for-word, what is detailed in the criteria, but if they do not, they must be approved by the Chief Inspector of Explosives.
  4. For consumer fireworks only, the Canadian explosives class, i.e., F.1.
  5. For consumer fireworks only, instructions regarding acceptable conditions for storage once purchased and taken to the consumer=s premises.

Where fireworks that are too small to carry all markings are to be retailed without the factory packaging, they must carry the most important safety messages appropriate to their mode of functioning and satisfactory to the Chief Inspector of Explosives.

3.5.3 Markings on Firework Components

Every firework component ejected from a tube (e.g., small effects, whistles, etc.) must carry the following police label: AExplosives - Danger - Explosifs. Hand to local police for destruction -- Remettre à la police locale pour destruction.@ The name and address of the manufacturer must also appear on every firework component.

3.5.4 Markings on Assortments of Consumer Fireworks

Packages of assortments, also called family kits or blister packs, must carry the trade names and/or product numbers of the fireworks they contain. If clear see-through packaging is used, the trade names and/or product numbers need not to appear on the outer packaging.

3.5.5 Markings on Assortments of Display Fireworks

Packages of display fireworks assortments must carry the trade names and/or product numbers of the fireworks they contain.

4. SAMPLING AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

Not all articles are tested. Large submissions are sampled, and acceptance of the submission depends on the behaviour of the sample. New articles similar to existing articles from established and known companies may be authorized by analogy to existing products.

Sampling will be at the discretion of the inspector and depends on previous experience, the history of complaints, the availability of articles from the same company to use as analogies, or the time elapsed since articles from the company were last tested.

The sampling procedures described below assume minimum sampling. An inspector may decide to use more samples if they believe the result would be a better evaluation of a submission.

The appendices describe in detail the general and specific requirements that must be met by each category of fireworks. The requirements that are critical are identified with the letter AC.@ More stringent acceptance criteria are used for the critical characteristics.

In the course of the authorization process, should a significant non-compliance occur early in the testing phase of the article being tested, testing will stop and samples will be destroyed, precluding authorization. No opportunity will be given to explain the non-compliance and resume testing.

4.1 Consumer Fireworks

4.1.1 Sampling of a Submission

4.1.1.1 One or Two Articles

It is common with consumer fireworks to submit individual articles one at a time. Each such article will be evaluated on its merits. Acceptance or rejection of each article is based on the criteria in paragraph 4.1.2.

4.1.1.2 More Than Two Articles or Families of Articles

When more than two articles are submitted, the fireworks may be divided into families (as defined in Appendix B) based on their construction and their effect. Differing colours within a family are considered to be variations of the family, even though they may listed as individual items in the list of authorized explosives. Each such family may be represented by a sample. Each set of five colour variations is represented by a separate sample.

For example, if a mine family has 14 different colour variations (14 ÷ 5 = 2.8 = 3), only 3 members of the family, each with 24 units, will be chosen to represent that family.

4.1.2 Acceptance Criteria for Consumer Fireworks

4.1.2.1 For Each Article

Generally, for each article selected for testing, 24 units are required to evaluate its acceptability, as follows:

  1. 12 units are fired:
    12/12 must pass on the characteristics marked “C” and 10/12 must pass all other characteristics.
  2. 6 units are subjected to abuse testing (1-metre drop):
    3/6 must pass characteristics marked “C” and 3/6 must pass all other characteristics.
  3. 2 units are disassembled and measured and the chemicals are analyzed; 2 other units are subjected to the stability tests. The physical measurements, chemicals and stability must conform to the manufacturer=s declaration and ERD requirements.
  4. 2 units are used as spares.

The testing of toy pistol caps will require at least 400 caps, while the testing of sparklers will require about 50 units.All the critical requirements – marked (C) – must be met. All the non-critical requirements should also be met. However, failure to meet only one non-critical requirement will not preclude authorization.

Note that the number of units requested for testing is subject to change.

Failure to meet the requirements outlined in these guidelines constitutes failure of the article.

4.1.2.2 Authorization of a Submission

In the case of a submission for which an applicant has elected to have one or more articles authorized on an individual basis, the authorization procedure for each article will be as described in the previous section (4.1.2.1).

In the case of a submission that includes one or more families of articles, authorization of the families of articles will be based on the following:

  1. Each family of articles will be treated individually, e.g., if one family from a submission successfully passes testing at the CERL, and another family from the same submission fails testing, only the family that has failed will be denied authorization.
  2. For a family of articles to be authorized, all articles selected for testing from that family must pass the tests as per the requirements of section 4.1.2.1.

It is important for the applicant to distinguish between the various families of articles submitted with an application.

4.2 Display Fireworks

4.2.1 Definition of Separate Article

A separate article is defined as one of a different effect, construction or colour. Different calibres using the same construction do not constitute separate articles. The total number of separate articles in a submission will determine the number of samples to be selected for testing. For each article selected, generally 12 units are to be supplied.

4.2.2 Sampling of a Submission

The number of separate articles in a submission is used to determine the number of articles chosen to represent the submission. The following applies (MIL-STD-105):

Number of articles submitted for authorization Number of articles to be sampled Acceptance
Companies with no past difficulties Known companies with some past difficulties Unknown companies Maximum number of failures

2 to 8
9 to 15
16 to 25

2
2
3
2
3
5
3
5
8
0
0
0

26 to 50
51 to 90
91 to 150

5
5
8
8
13
20
13
20
32
0
0
1

151 to 280
281 to 500
501 to 1200*

13
20
32
32
50
80
50
80
125
1
2
3

* See MIL-STD-105 for larger numbers. Companies with no past difficulties warrant reduced inspection; known companies with some past difficulties warrant normal inspection; unknown companies warrant enhanced inspection.

4.2.3 Acceptance Criteria for Display Fireworks

4.2.3.1 For Each Article

Generally, for each article selected for testing:

  1. 12 units are examined for labelling and condition as received;
  2. 6 units are fired: 6/6 must pass characteristics marked “C” and 5/6 must pass other characteristics;
  3. 2 units are subjected to thermal stability testing and must pass;
  4. 2 units are dismantled for construction, physical measurements and chemical analyses:
    • Construction: 2/2 must meet characteristics marked “C” and 1/2 must meet other characteristics.
    • Chemical and physical measurement: these must conform to the declaration.

Failure to meet these requirements constitutes failure of the article. The performance of the selected articles will determine whether the submission is authorized or denied.

4.2.3.2 Authorization of a Submission

The performance of all the articles selected as the sample will be used to assess the submission. Each article can either pass or fail; the number of articles that may fail without causing rejection of the submission is set out in the table in section 4.2.2.

4.2.4 Addition of a Fuse to Articles

Some articles are approved without an ignition fuse for the firework. A distributor may add a fuse for the re-sale of a product subject to the following conditions:

  1. with the approval of the ERD (this approval can only be obtained if a description for the modified article is provided along with a description of the packaging method when these articles are re-packed);
  2. the modification may only be done at a licensed site, under the conditions of the licence.

APPENDIX A B GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSUMER FIREWORKS

All consumer fireworks must meet the general requirements listed in this appendix. Specific requirements for each type of article (Roman candles, mines, cakes, etc.) are described later in these guidelines.

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSUMER FIREWORKS
1 Shipping Packaging Packaging must comply with the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act and Regulations and the standards referred to therein.
1.1 Marking

Markings on the case used for transport must include (C):

  • UN classification
  • Proper UN shipping name
  • UN number
  • Dangerous goods safety marks
  • Names of the authorized explosives as per the list of authorized explosives (in either English or French)
  • Product identification number, if any
  • Name of manufacturer and/or authorized distributor
Packaging registration number
1.2 Condition of Packaging Loose composition is not allowed in packaging (C).
ITEM CHARACTERISTIC GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSUMER FIREWORKS
2 Labelling of Articles Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information4 (C):
  • Canadian class, i.e., F.1
  • Authorized brand or trade name (note: assortment packages must be marked with the trade names of the authorized fireworks they contain)
  • Name, logo or code identifying the manufacturer and/or authorized distributor
  • Instructions for use and safety warnings in both English and French (refer to Appendix B for examples)
  • Maximum height of the effect
  • Safe separation distance for spectators (The separation distance must be at least twice the height of the effects for straight articles and two and a half times the height of the effects for angled articles.)
  • Minimum safety radius (The radius must be at least twice the height of the effects for straight articles and two and a half times the height of the effects for angled articles.)
  • For angled articles, an arrow indicating the direction of the effect/fire/flame
  • Date of manufacture and, if the manufacturing operations are in shifts, the shift of manufacture5
2.1 Labels on Ejected Components

Ejected components must carry the following label with the name and address of the manufacturer. This label must remain attached to the tube or shell after firing (C)6:

AExplosives - Danger - Do not light. Hand to local police for destruction. / Explosifs - Danger - Ne pas allumer. Remettre à la police locale pour destruction.@
3 Physical Integrity  

________________________
4If marking the firework is not practical, the markings must appear in every inner package. In the absence of an inner package, the markings must appear on the shipping packaging. When the fireworks are too small to carry all the markings and are to be sold without the shipping packaging, they must carry the most important safety messages appropriate to their mode of functioning, and the markings must be approved by the ERD.

5This requirement will apply when the Explosives Plain Language Regulations come into force.

6If the print is too small, the following is acceptable when approved by the Chief Inspector : “Explosives - Danger - Explosifs.”

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSUMER FIREWORKS
3.1 Construction of Articles
  • Articles must not:
  • Contain metal, such as staples or wire, or hard plastic, which could be a possible missile hazard when fired or if a malfunction happens (C)
  • Have pyrotechnic falling out of the tube (C)
  • Contain loose pyrotechnic powder in an unintended part of the article (C)
  • Show signs of breaking or cracking in the casing or composition
  • Be constructed so that the rolled paper tube allows the composition to migrate under the inner layer of paper
  • Have secondary components that are easily removable from the tube
3.1.1 Tubes, Cones and Boxes

Tubes, cones and boxes must not:

  • Have a metallic construction (C)
  • Be damaged by shipping or handling
3.1.2 Bases and Spikes

When present, bases and spikes must not:

  • Become detached or unsecured during handling

When present, the base must not:

  • Cause the article to topple over when tilted to 12° (C)
3.1.3 Main Fuse

Main fuse must be:

  • Visible (C)
  • Permanently and securely attached (C)

Main fuse must not be:

  • Any type other than a black match, igniter cord, safety fuse or fuse encased in plastic tubing (C)
  • Primed with an electric match (C)
3.1.4 Interconnecting Fuse

Interconnecting fuse must:

    • Be covered in a manner that prevents accidental or unintentional ignition (C)
    • Be securely attached
    • Provide proper firing sequence
ITEM CHARACTERISTIC GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSUMER FIREWORKS
4 Performance  
4.1 Fusing

Fusing must:

  • Provide a reliable ignition (C)
  • Have a main fuse average action time "1 standard deviation of 3 to 6 s (average is determined by testing 6 units) (C)
4.2 Function

Articles must:

  • Function as described on the label (C)
  • Function in a safe, reliable, reproducible and predictable manner (C)

Articles must not:

  • Eject effects with unpredictable trajectories landing more than 5 m away (C)
  • Have a delay between visible or audible effects of more than 5 s (C)
  • Bulge, shatter, rupture or burn through the case and/or closures unless designed to do so (C)
  • Carry an unraveled tube (C)
  • Fall over during normal, upright functioning (for articles with a base or spike) (C)
  • Have a base or spike that comes loose during functioning (C)
  • Burn after function is complete (C)
  • Have unconsumed pyrotechnic composition after functioning
  • Have loose plugs after functioning (for tubes having plugs at the base)
  • Project flames that spit, disintegrate or falter (except when designed so)
4.3 Height

Minimum heights:

  • Articles with reports containing more than 130 mg of flash composition or more than 500 mg of black powder must function at a minimum height of 10 m.
  • Shells or colour effects must function at a minimum height of 10 m.
  • When falling back towards the ground, all effects must be completely burnt at a minimum height of 5m from the ground.
4.4 Effects

Articles must not:

  • Explode (unless designed to do so) (C)
  • Have a noise level higher than 140 dB (A) within a 5-m radius (C)
  • Scatter burning effect or debris from lighting on the ground (all effects must be completely burnt at a minimum height of 5 m from the ground) (C)
  • Project spitting or disintegrating flame (C)
  • Project unlit composition
5 Physical Measurements The test results must show that the measured gross weights and explosive charge weights are as per the manufacturer=s declaration.
6 Stability All units subject to stability testing (75°C for 48 h) must pass.
7 Pyrotechnic Composition  
7.1 Chemical Analysis

Chemical analysis must not show the following discrepancies (C):

  • Detection of more than 0.5% of a component not present in the declaration
  • Non-detection of a component present in the declaration
  • Detection of over 200% for components specified as under 25% in the declaration
  • Detection of over 150% for other components specified as 25% or over in the declaration
  • Detection of under 50% for components specified as over 10% in the declaration
  • Detection of chlorate with sulphur (chlorate is allowed under restricted conditions only)
7.2 Flash Composition Flash composition refers to pyrotechnic substances in powder form or as pyrotechnic units as presented in the fireworks, that are used to produce an aural effect, or used as a bursting charge or lifting charge, unless the time taken for the pressure rise is demonstrated to be more than 8 ms for 0.5 g of pyrotechnic substance in the HSL Flash Composition Test (Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and Criteria).

APPENDIX B B SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSUMER FIREWORKS

In addition to the general requirements listed in Appendix A, each type of consumer fireworks must meet the specific requirements described in this section. Some of the fireworks categories referred to in this appendix can also be known under different names, i.e.:

Terminology used in these guidelinesss Synonyms
Report Banger
Cake Battery
Flare Bengal Fire, Coloured Fire, Illuminating Fire, Lawn Light, Torch
Battery/Combination Bombardo, Hybrid
Wheel Driver, Pinwheel, Saxon
Fountain Rains, Showers, Volcano
Christmas Cracker Snap
Ground Spinner Spinner
Shot Tube Pre-loaded mortar

Note that articles such as replicas or other articles not listed in these guidelines which are prepared with fireworks described in these guidelines will be allowed provided that their outer package or assembly does not hinder their proper functioning and safety.

PART I: FIREWORKS ARTICLES

1.0 Battery/Combination

Synonyms: barrage, bombardo, hybrid, multiple tubes, etc.

Description: Battery/Combination consists of a rapidly fired sequence of aerial or low-level fireworks with one or two points of ignition. It is an assembly including several elements either containing the same type or several types each corresponding to one of the following: Roman candles, mines, fountains, flares or ground whistles. Shells are not allowed in such articles. Note that this type of firework is also commonly called Acake.@ However, in these guidelines, articles with more than seven tubes are described separately and must meet different requirements.

Requirements

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR BATTERY/COMBINATION
1.1 Construction of the Article
  • no more than 7 tubes per article (C)
  • Wires tying tubes together or to a support are not permitted (C)
  • Maximum 15° angle (C)
1.2 Construction of the Tubes Tubes in the article must be constructed as per the requirements for Roman candles, fountains, flares, mines or ground whistles.
1.3 Charge Weight

Article:

  • Total pyrotechnic composition: no more than 300 g (C)
  • Total flash composition permitted per article: no more than 1 g and no more than 5% (C)

Aerial whistle:

  • no more than 3 g/whistle
  • Articles with more than one (1) aerial whistle may be subjected to a crush/violence test.

Aerial whistle with report at the end of the whistle:

  • no more than 1 per tube (C)
  • no more than 800 mg of flash composition/report or no more than 2 g black powder/report (C)

Report:

  • no more than 1 report/tube (no more than 800 mg flash composition/report or no more than 2 g black powder/report) allowed (C)
  • if more than 1 report/article: no more than 130 mg flash composition/report or no more than 500 mg black powder/report (C)
  • Total report composition for articles with multiple report tubes: no more than 1 g and no more than 5% flash composition or no more than 4 g black powder (C)
1.4 Performance

Articles must not:

  • Enhance any hazard expected from individual components (C)
  • Move as a result of function
1.5 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix A
  • Labels must be as per the type of articles used, i.e., Roman candles, mines, fountains, flares and ground whistles. Refer to these sections for an example of the labelling.
  • For angled articles, an arrow indicating the direction of the effect/fire/flame

Ejected components must carry the following label with the name and address of the manufacturer. This label must remain attached to the tube or shell after firing (C):

  • AExplosives - Danger - Do not light. Hand to local police for destruction. / Explosifs - Danger - Ne pas allumer. Remettre à la police locale pour destruction.@

2.0 Cakes

Description: Cakes are fireworks devices consisting of 8 to 100 small-diameter cylindrical tubes that are chain-fused to fire in sequence after a single ignition. These items discharge projectiles such as stars, comets, aerial whistles or small effects into the air. Fountains are permitted in cakes but ground whistles and shells are not. Only one effect per tube is allowed.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR CAKES
2.1 Construction of the Article
  • Between 8 and 100 tubes/article (C)
  • Wires tying tubes together or to a support are not permitted (C)
  • Maximum 15° angle (C)
2.2 Construction of the Tubes Tube diameter: no more than 22 mm
2.3 Charge Weight

Article:

  • Total pyrotechnic composition: no more than 300 g (C)
  • Total flash composition permitted per article: no more than 1 g and no more than 5% (C)

Aerial whistle:

  • no more than 1 aerial whistle/tube (C)
  • no more than 3 g/whistle
  • Articles with more than one (1) aerial whistle may be subjected to a crush/violence test.

Aerial whistle with report at the end of the whistle:

  • no more than 1 per tube (C)
  • no more than 800 mg of flash composition/report or no more than 2 g black powder/report (C)

Report:

  • no more than 1 report/tube (no more than 800 mg flash composition/report or no more than 2 g black powder/report) (C)
  • If more than 1 report/article: no more than 130 mg flash composition/report or no more than 500 mg black powder/report (C)
  • Total report composition for articles with multiple report tubes: no more than 1 g and no more than 5% flash composition or no more than 4 g black powder (C)

Small effect:

  • no more than 1 small effect/tube (C)
  • no more than 8 g total pyrotechnic composition/small effect (C)
  • For more details on small effects, refer to Part II - Fireworks Components, Section 4.0.
2.4 Performance

Articles must not:

  • Enhance any hazard expected from individual components (C)
  • Move as a result of function
2.5 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix A
  • The warning on the cake must indicate which type of effects are projected from the article; e.g., if the cake projects whistles and comets, the warning should say AShoots Flaming Balls and Whistles / Émet des boules enflammées et des sifflets.@
  • For angled articles, an arrow indicating the direction of the effect/fire/flame

Ejected components must carry the following label with the name and address of the manufacturer. This label must remain attached to the tube or shell after firing (C):

  • AExplosives - Danger - Do not light. Hand to local police for destruction. / Explosifs - Danger - Ne pas allumer. Remettre à la police locale pour destruction.@

3.0 Christmas Crackers

Description: Firework article consisting of an overwrapped cracker and designed to produce noise due to a small explosion when tapes or strings are pulled in opposite directions.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR CHRISTMAS CRACKERS
3.1 Charge Weight Total pyrotechnic composition: no more than 1.6 mg (C)
3.2 Performance

Articles must not:

  • Eject sparks (C)
  • Project effects during functioning (C)
  • Contain smouldering material (C)
  • Have a noise level higher than 140 dB (A) within a 45-cm radius
3.3 Labels

Article:

  • Individual items need not be labelled.

Box:
Labels affixed to the box must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix A

The box must also carry the following English and French labels (C):

  • AEXPLODES WHEN TAPES ARE PULLED. Do not disassemble. Hold in hands, pull tapes apart sharply.@
  • AEXPLOSE QUAND ON TIRE LES RUBANS. Ne pas démonter. Tenir dans les mains et tirer les rubans brusquement.@

4.0 Flares

Synonyms: Bengal fire, coloured fire, illuminating fire, lawn light, torch

Description: Ground-level firework that consists of a thin-walled cylindrical tube into which a pyrotechnic composition is pressed or cast. While burning, the pyrotechnic composition produces a hot bright-coloured flame. The tube may burn away with the composition.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR FLARES
4.1 Charge Weight Total pyrotechnic composition: no more than 150 g (C)
4.2 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix A

The flares must also carry the following English and French labels (C):

  • AWARNING: EMITS FLAMES. For use by adults. For outdoor use only. Do not hold in hand. Place upright on level ground (for flares with base) or stick firmly upright in ground (for flares without bases). Light fuse and stand clear.@
  • AMISE EN GARDE: ÉMET UNE FLAMME. Utilisation par des adultes. N=utiliser qu=à l=extérieur. Ne pas tenir dans la main. Placer verticalement sur le sol à un endroit bien à plat (fusées comportant une base) ou Bien enfoncer en position verticale dans le sol (fusées sans base). Allumer la mèche et se tenir à l=écart.@

5.0 Fountains

Synonyms: rains, showers, volcanoes

Description: Ground piece fireworks that are filled with pyrotechnic composition and usually having a choke or restricted orifice. When ignited, it projects a jet or broad spray of fire and sparks. Fountains may contain microstars.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FORFOUNTAINS
5.1 Construction

Articles must (C):

  • Have a base

OR

  • Have a spike

OR

  • Be designed for partial burial
5.2 Charge Weight
  • Cone shape: no more than 50 g (C)
  • Cylindrical shape: no more than 75 g (C)
5.3 Performance

Article with a base must not:

  • Topple over when tilted to 12° (C)
5.4 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in Section 2.0 of Appendix A

The fountains must also carry the following English and French labels (C):

  • AWARNING: EMITS SHOWER OF SPARKS. Height of effects is: X m. Spectators must be at a distance of 2X m. Choose a wide, clear site away from all obstacles and with a minimum safety radius of 2X m from the fireworks. For use by adults. For outdoor use only. Do not hold in hand. Place on level surface or partially bury (no spikes) or stick firmly upright in ground (with spikes). Light fuse and stand clear.@
  • AMISE EN GARDE: ÉMET UNE PLUIE D=ÉTINCELLES. Hauteur des effets: X m. Les spectateurs doivent être à une distance de 2X m. Choisir un emplacement bien dégagé, loin de tout obstacle et avec un rayon d=au moins 2X m de la pièce pyrotechnique. Utilisation par des adultes. N=utiliser qu=à l=extérieur. Ne pas tenir dans la main. Placer sur le sol à un endroit bien à plat ou enterrer partiellement (sans pieu) ou Bien enfoncer en position verticale dans le sol (avec pieu). Allumer la mèche et se tenir à l=écart.@

6.0 Ground Spinners

Description: Non-metallic tube containing gas and sparks-producing pyrotechnic composition, with or without noise-producing pyrotechnic composition. Rotation on the ground and emission of sparks and/or flames with or without aural effect.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUND SPINNERS
6.1 Construction

The fuse shall be firmly affixed to the support and shall be well insulated to prevent cross-ignition.

6.2 Charge Weight
  • Total pyrotechnic composition: no more than 8 g (C)
  • Total whistle composition permitted in an article: no more than 3 g (C)
6.3 Performance

Articles may eject sparks or flames but must not:

  • Shoot stars (as in Roman candles)

Articles must:

  • Revolve smoothly (C)
  • Have a stoppage time no more than 5 s
  • Have a final position no more than 5 m from the ignition point
  • Have a distance of projection no more than 1 m
6.4 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix A

The ground spinners must also carry the following English and French labels (C):

  • WARNING: EMITS SHOWER OF SPARKS. Use on a flat surface. For use by adults. For outdoor use only. Do not hold in hand. Light fuse and stand clear.
  • MISE EN GARDE: ÉMET UNE PLUIE D=ÉTINCELLES. Utiliser sur une surface plane. Utilisation par des adultes. N=utiliser qu=à l=extérieur. Ne pas tenir dans la main. Allumer la mèche et se tenir à l=écart.

7.0 Ground Whistles

Synonyms: sound tubes

Description: A ground-level device that produces a whistling sound other than a salute or report by the burning of a pyrotechnic composition. The composition is pressed into a tube and is recessed from the end. Similar items projected into the air (aerial whistles) are described in Part II - Fireworks Components, section 1.0.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FORGROUND WHISTLES
7.1 Charge Weight

Total pyrotechnic composition: no more than 15 g (C)

7.2 Performance
  • The case must stop burning no more than 30 s after functioning has ceased.
  • Whistles must not convert into report after transporting, crushing or rolling 25 kg static pressure.
7.3 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix A

The ground whistles must also carry the following English and French labels (C):

  • AWARNING: EMITS A LOUD WHISTLING NOISE. For use by adults. For outdoor use only. Do not hold in hand. Place upright on level ground and assure a vertical position. Light fuse and stand clear.@
  • AMISE EN GARDE: ÉMET UN SON STRIDENT. Utilisation par des adultes. N=utiliser qu=à l=extérieur. Ne pas tenir dans la main. Placer verticalement sur le sol à un endroit bien à plat et s=assurer qu=il reste à la verticale. Allumer la mèche et se tenir à l=écart.@

8.0 Hand-held Fountains

Description: Very low-hazard firework device that burns at low temperature and not violently. Its composition will not include poisonous ingredients. The combustion products are gaseous and will generate low odour and low smoke. They are designed to be used in close proximity.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR HAND-HELD FOUNTAINS
8.1 Construction
  • Inside diameter: no more than 8 mm
  • Length of composition: no more than 150 mm
8.2 Charge Weight
  • Total pyrotechnic composition: no more than 15 g (C)
8.3 Performance

Articles must:

  • Burn smoothly
  • Have an ignition time no more than10 s (when ignited with a match flame)
  • Not contain poisonous chemicals
  • Not contain sulphur
  • Have a total burning time no more than 5 min
  • Not produce large pieces of composition falling from the article when functioning; only sparks are allowed (C)

Articles must meet the ‘pinhole test’ requirements (C), i.e.:

  • No ignition or burning (scorching and some pinholes are allowed) through a single page of newspaper when the article is in a horizontal position 450 mm above the paper
  • Diameter of pinholes: no more than 2 mm
  • Number of pinholes allowed for 20-article sample: no more than 20
  • Number of pinholes allowed per article: no more than 5
8.4 Labels

Labels affixed on the primary container, which is the smallest container sold to the public, must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix A

The primary container must also carry the following English and French labels (C):

  • WARNING: EMITS FLAMES OR SHOWERS OF STARS. For use by adults. For outdoor use only. Do not touch glowing article. Light only one article at a time. Keep away from the body. Keep burning end and sparks away from clothing or other flammable materials.
  • MISE EN GARDE: ÉMET UNE FLAMME OU UNE PLUIE D=ÉTINCELLES. Utilisation par des adultes. N’utiliser qu’à l=extérieur. Ne pas toucher l’article en incandescence. N’allumer qu’un article à la fois. Garder aussi loin du corps que possible. Garder aussi loin que possible des vêtements ou de toute autre matière inflammable.

9.0 Mines

Description: Mines are devices designed to project many ignited stars and/or effects into the air (upwards). All effects must be ignited at the same time by the lift charge. Mines produce low-level visual effects, such as, but not exclusively, those from stars, tourbillons, firecrackers or whistles, and one or more reports. The effects may be preceded by a fountain and/or flare and/or burning stars.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR MINES
9.1 Charge Weight

Article:

  • Lift charge: no more than 10 g
  • Effect composition: no more than 40 g
  • Total pyrotechnic composition: no more than 40 g effect composition + no more than 10 g lift charge (C)
  • Total flash composition permitted per article: no more than 1 g and no more than 5% (C)

Aerial whistle:

  • no more than 3 g/whistle, no more than 10 g total whistle composition per article

Black powder firecrackers:

  • no more than 5 g/firecracker, no more than 10 g total firecracker composition per article

Report:

  • If no more than 1 report/article: no more than 800 mg flash composition/report or no more than 2 g black powder/report
  • If more than 1 report/article: no more than 130 mg flash composition/report or no more than 500 mg black powder/report
  • Total report composition in an article with multiple reports: no more than 1 g and no more than 5% flash composition/article or no more than 4 g black powder/article

________________________
7
If there is more than 1 (one) effect in the mine, the pyrotechnic composition of individual effects + total lift charge must not exceed 25 g.

9.2 Performance

The culminating final report must not occur while the other effects are functioning (C).

9.3 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix A

The mines must also carry the following English and French labels 8:

  • WARNING: ERUPTS THROWING STARS OR FLAMING BALLS. Height of effects is: X m. Spectators must be at a distance of 2X m. Choose a wide, clear site away from all obstacles and with a minimum safety radius of 2X m from the fireworks. For use by adults. For outdoor use only. Do not hold in hand. Place upright on level ground (with base) or bury one third of its length in sand (without bases). Light fuse and stand clear.
  • MISE EN GARDE: ÉMET UNE PLUIE D=ÉTINCELLES. Hauteur des effets: X m. Les spectateurs doivent être à une distance de 2X m. Choisir un emplacement bien dégagé, loin de tout obstacle et avec un rayon d=au moins 2X m de la pièce pyrotechnique. Utilisation par des adultes. N=utiliser qu=à l=extérieur. Ne pas tenir dans la main. Placer verticalement sur le sol à un endroit bien à plat (avec base) ou Enterrer au tiers dans du sable (sans base). Allumer la mèche et se tenir à l=écart.

10.0 Roman Candles

Synonyms: exhibition candle, candle, bombettes

Description: Roman candles are cylindrical tubes containing a series of pyrotechnic units (stars, small effects) consisting of alternating pyrotechnic composition, propellant charge and transmitting fuse.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR ROMAN CANDLES
10.1 Construction
  • Inside diameter: no more than 22 mm (C)
  • Number of shots: not less than 5
  • Roman candles must not have a spike.
10.2 Charge Weight

Article:

  • Total pyrotechnic composition: no more than 40 g (C)
  • Total flash composition permitted per article: no more than 1 g and no more than 5% (C)

Aerial whistle:

  • no more than 3 g/whistle, no more than 10 g total whistle composition per article
  • Roman candles with more than one (1) aerial whistle may be subjected to a crush/violence test.

Report:

  • no more than 1 report or tourbillon/article: no more than 800 mg flash composition/report or no more than 2 g black powder/report
  • Roman candles may not have more than one report.
10.3 Performance

Articles must:

  • Have a regular time interval between the shots
10.4 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix A

The Roman candles must also carry the following English and French labels (C):

  • WARNING: SHOOTS FLAMING BALLS. Height of effects is: X m. Spectators must be at a distance of 2X m. Choose a wide, clear site away from all obstacles and with a minimum safety radius of 2X m from the fireworks. For use by adults. For outdoor use only. Do not hold in hand. Place upright on level ground (with base) or bury one half of its length in sand (without bases). Light fuse and stand clear.
  • MISE EN GARDE: ÉMET UNE PLUIE D=ÉTINCELLES. Hauteur des effets: X m. Les spectateurs doivent être à une distance de 2X m. Choisir un emplacement bien dégagé, loin de tout obstacle et avec un rayon d=au moins 2X m de la pièce pyrotechnique. Utilisation par des adultes. N=utiliser qu=à l=extérieur. Ne pas tenir dans la main. Placer verticalement sur le sol à un endroit solide (avec base) ou Enterrer à la moitié dans du sable (sans base). Allumer la mèche et se tenir à l=écart.

11.0 Shot Tubes

Synonyms: single shot Roman candle, small pre-loaded mortar

Description: Shot tubes are completed items ready for use. They eject a small shell, a small effect, a comet, an aerial whistle or a report.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR SHOT TUBES
11.1 Construction
  • Inside diameter: no more than 50 mm (C)
11.2 Charge Weight Article:
  • Lift charge: no more than 10 g (C)
  • Total pyrotechnic composition (effects + lift charge ): no more than 25 g (C)
  • Total flash composition permitted per article: no more than 1 g and no more than 5% (C)

Aerial whistle:

  • For more details on aerial whistles, refer to Part II - Fireworks Components, section 1.0.

Comet:

  • For more details on comets, refer to Part II - Fireworks Components, section 2.0.

Report:

  • For more details on reports, refer to Part II - Fireworks Components, section 3.0.

Small effect:

  • For more details on small effects, refer to Part II - Fireworks Components, section 4.0.

Small shell:

  • For more details on small shells, refer to Part II - Fireworks Components, section 5.0.
11.3 Performance

Articles must have a base large enough to prevent toppling over during functioning (C).

11.4 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix A

The shot tubes must also carry the following English and French labels (C):

  • WARNING: SHOOTS A SHELL OR A WHISTLE. Height of effects is: X m. Spectators must be at a distance of 2X m. Choose a wide, clear site away from all obstacles and with a minimum safety radius of 2X m from the fireworks. For use by adults. For outdoor use only. Do not hold in hand. Place upright on firm, level ground. Light fuse and stand clear.
  • MISE EN GARDE: LANCE UNE BOMBE OU UN SIFFLET. Hauteur des effets: X m. Les spectateurs doivent être à une distance de 2X m. Choisir un emplacement bien dégagé, loin de tout obstacle et avec un rayon d=au moins 2X m de la pièce pyrotechnique. Utilisation par des adultes. N=utiliser qu=à l=extérieur. Ne pas tenir dans la main. Placer verticalement sur le sol à un endroit solide et bien à plat. Allumer la mèche et se tenir à l=écart.

12.0 Snakes

Synonyms: glow warms, serpents

Description: Snakes are ground piece fireworks that consist of a solid pellet. When the pellet is ignited, it swells forming what resembles a snake.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR SNAKES
12.1 Construction

Cracked pellets or loose composition are not allowed.

12.2 Charge Weight
  • Total pyrotechnic composition: no more than 5 g (C)
  • Flash composition is not allowed (C)
12.3 Performance

Pellets must be easy to light.

12.4 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix A

The snakes must also carry the following English and French labels (C):

  • WARNING: PRODUCES A SNAKE. For use by adults. For outdoor use only. Do not hold in hand. Do not put in mouth. Place on level ground.
  • MISE EN GARDE: FORME UN SERPENT. Utilisation par des adultes. N=utiliser qu=à l=extérieur. Ne pas tenir dans la main. Ne pas mettre dans la bouche. Placer sur le sol à un endroit bien à plat.

13.0 Sparklers

Synonyms: hand-held sparklers, non-handheld sparklers, wire sparklers

Description: Rigid metal wire partially coated (along one end) with slow burning pyrotechnic composition with or without an ignition tip. Sparklers are designed to be hand-held.

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR SPARKLERS
13.1 Construction
  • Total length of the sparkler: 100 mm to no more than 750 mm
  • Length of the rod to serve as a handle: not less than 1/3 of the total length of the sparkler
  • Sparklers must not have cracked composition.
  • Sparklers must not have composition falling off.
13.2 Charge Weight

Nitrate base:

  • Total pyrotechnic composition: no more than 20 g (C)

Perchlorate base:

  • Total pyrotechnic composition: no more than 5 g (C)
13.3 Performance

Articles must:

  • Burn smoothly
  • Have an average ignition time for 20-article sample no more than 10 s (when ignited with a match flame)
  • Not contain poisonous chemicals
  • Have a total burning time no more than 5 min
  • Not produce large pieces of composition falling from the article when functioning; only sparks are allowed (C)
  • Not sag, from the point at which burning ceased, more than 30° from horizontal

Articles must meet the >pinhole test= requirements (C), i.e.:

  • No ignition or burning (scorching and some pinholes are allowed) through a single page of newspaper when the article is in a horizontal position 450 mm above the paper
  • Diameter of pinholes: no more than 2 mm
  • Number of pinholes allowed for 20-article sample: no more than 20
  • Number of pinholes allowed per article: no more than 5
13.4 Labels

Labels affixed on the primary container, which is the smallest container sold to the public, must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix A

The primary container must also carry the following English and French labels (C):

  • WARNING: EMITS SHOWERS OF SPARKS. For use by adults or under close supervision by an adult. Not intended for children under 8 years old. Not recommended for indoor use. Do not touch glowing sparkler. Light only one sparkler at a time. Hold in hand with arm extended away from the body. Keep burning end and sparks away from clothing or other flammable materials.@
  • MISE EN GARDE: ÉMET UNE PLUIE D=ÉTINCELLES. Utilisation par des adultes ou sous la surveillance étroite d=un adulte. Non destiné aux enfants de moins de 8 ans. Non recommendé pour utilisation à l=intérieur. Ne pas toucher à la tige incandescence. N=allumer qu=un cierge magique à la fois. Tenir en maintenant la main le plus loin possible du corps. Tenir le bout incandescent et les étincelles à l=écart des vêtements ou de toute autre matière inflammable.@

14.0 Strobe Pots

Description: Strobe pots are small tubes or end plugs pressed, cast or loaded with strobe composition. They generate a blinking effect where bright flashes of light are produced at fairly regular intervals with relatively complete darkness between flashes.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR STROBE POTS
14.1 Charge Weight

Total pyrotechnic composition: no more than 40 g (C)

14.2 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix A

The strobe pots must also carry the following English and French labels (C):

  • WARNING: EMITS FLAMES. For use by adults. For outdoor use only. Do not hold in hand. Place upright on firm, level ground (with base) or bury in sand or soil (without base). Light fuse and stand clear.
  • MISE EN GARDE: ÉMET DES FLAMMES. Utilisation par des adultes. N=utiliser qu=à l=extérieur. Ne pas tenir dans la main. Placer verticalement sur le sol à un endroit solide et bien à plat (avec base) ou Enfoncer dans le sable ou dans le sol (sans base). Allumer la mèche et se tenir à l=écart.

15.0 Toy Pistol Caps

Synonyms: paper caps

Description: Toy pistol caps are small charges of explosive contained in a cup or confined between two sheets of paper.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR TOY PISTOL CAPS
15.1 Construction

Articles:

  • The dimensions and construction of the toy pistol caps are dictated by the device in which they are functioned.
  • Caps must be easy to remove from the primary package.
  • Caps must not have dirty or deformed surfaces.
  • Caps must not have holes (C).
  • There may be no loose composition (C).
  • There may be no loose or missing discs (C).
  • There may be no head-to-head contact of caps in the package (C).

Plastic discs must:

  • Be covered with paper so that composition cannot fall out (C)
  • Not have any excess composition on the outside (C)
  • Not have any gouge, hole, leftover lump of plastic or other defect
  • Not have deformed rims

Paper rolls must not:

  • Have holes, tears or wrinkles (C)
  • Show leaching of chlorate into the paper surrounding the dot (C)
15.2 Charge Weight

Consumer package:

  • no more than 0.04 g/ml, uniformly distributed (C)
  • no more than 1000 caps/primary container8(C)

Ring or strips:

  • no more than 6.5 g/1000 caps (C)

Roll caps:

no more than 5.0 g/1000 caps (C)
15.3 Performance

Toy pistol caps must not:

  • Be designed like flares, i.e., burning instead of production of a snapping sound, detected by a flame, flash or sound level more than 10 dB (A) within the preset operating range of the test equipment
  • Allow cap-to-cap communication (50-cap sample) (C)
  • Have a logarithmic average (50-sample) noise level higher than 153 dB (A) within a 45-cm radius
  • Contain sulphur (C)
15.4 Labels

Labels affixed on the primary container, which is the smallest container sold to the public, must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix A
  • All primary packages shall be marked with lot number traceable to the production unit.

The primary container must also carry the following English and French labels (C):

  • WARNING: Do not fire within 30 cm of the ear. Misuse may cause damage to hearing. Do not fire indoors. Store in a cool dry place.
MISE EN GARDE: Faire exploser à au moins 30 cm des oreilles. Un mauvais usage peut causer des dommages à l’ouïe. Ne pas faire exploser à l’intérieur. Entreposer dans un endroit frais et sec.
15.5 Packaging Multiple-unit primary packages shall be designed in such a manner that if the contents of one unit are ignited, the effects will not communicate to the contents of an adjacent unit.

________________________
8
The primary container is defined as the smallest container sold to the public and may consist of a cardboard box, closed plastic tube, a bag with a header, or card with a blister cover. If the primary container is divided into units, the units must be separated so that the ignition of one will not result in the ignition of another unit in the primary package.

16.0 Wheels

Description: A revolving firework device fixed by an axle to a post above ground. When ignited, the attached drivers produce thrust, which causes the wheel to spin, producing a pattern of sparks.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR TOY PISTOL CAPS
16.1 Construction

Driver:

  • A driver consists of a strong paper case with a nozzle or choke, charged with a fast burning pyrotechnic composition. In fact, it is a thrust producing gerb designed to propel the unit.

Pinwheel:

  • Short length of paper-wrapped composition wound in a spiral around the edge of a circular piece of cardboard or plastic. The centre is secured to a post by a pin.

Saxon:

  • A single driver with a hole in one end through which a nail is secured. The other end has a hole through the side with a fuse. When ignited, the driver rotates around the axis.

Wheel:

  • One or more drivers arranged on a sturdy support of wood, heavy cardboard, or other appropriate material. The centre has a hole for a nail.

Articles must not:

  • Shoot stars as in Roman candles but may eject sparks, microstars or flames
  • Come loose during functioning (C)
  • Contain reports (C)

Articles must:

  • Have grommetted or otherwise treated hole to assure smooth rotation
  • Be provided with a pin or nail of appropriate diameter; unless the wheel is in a sealed package, the nail shall be firmly affixed to the support
  • Have a fuse firmly affixed to the support and shall be well insulated to prevent cross-ignition
16.2 Charge Weight

Article:

  • Total pyrotechnic composition: no more than 240 g
  • Total whistle composition per article: no more than 10 g

Driver:

  • no more than 60 g/driver
  • no more than 5 g whistle composition/driver
16.3 Performance

Wheels must:

  • Revolve smoothly
  • Have a stoppage time no more than 5 s
  • Remain attached to their support
  • Project sparks no more than 5 m
  • Not ignite the post to which they are attached
  • Not contain stars but may contain microstars
16.4 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix A

The wheels must also carry the following English and French labels (C):

  • AWARNING: EMITS SHOWER OF SPARKS. For use by adults. For outdoor use only. Do not hold in hand. Nail to a post, make sure wheel turns freely. Light fuse and stand clear.@
  • AMISE EN GARDE: ÉMET UNE PLUIE D=ÉTINCELLES. Utilisation par des adultes. N=utiliser qu=à l=extérieur. Ne pas tenir dans la main. Clouer à un poteau et s=assurer que la roue tourne librement. Allumer la mèche et se tenir à l=écart.@

PART II: FIREWORKS COMPONENTS (SECONDARY EFFECTS)

Fireworks components or secondary effects function or occur outside the fireworks articles. They are initiated in whole or in part by a fuse or other delay system. The various secondary effects listed below are permitted only as components of an article.

Ejected components must carry the following label with the name and address of the manufacturer. This label must remain attached to the tube or shell after firing (C): AExplosives - Danger - Do not light. Hand to local police for destruction. / Explosifs - Danger - Ne pas allumer. Remettre à la police locale pour destruction.@

1.0 Aerial Whistles

Description: Aerial whistles are firework devices that produce a whistling sound by the burning of a pyrotechnic composition. Aerial whistles are permitted as part of mines, shot tubes or Roman candles but they are not permitted as individual articles.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR AERIAL WHISTLES (SECONDARY EFFECTS)
1.1 Charge Weight Aerial whistle:
  • no more than 3 g/whistle (C)
Aerial whistle with report at the end of the whistle:
  • no more than 800 mg of flash composition/whistle (C)
1.2 Performance

Aerial whistles must be positioned properly in the firework article in order to ignite reliably.

2.0 Comets

Description: Comets are single large stars that produce a burning tail. They may or may not include a report insert.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR COMETS (SECONDARY EFFECTS)
2.1 Construction no more than 1 comet/tube (C)
2.2 Charge Weight

Article:

  • Total pyrotechnic composition (lift charge + comet): no more than 25 g (C)

Comet with report:

  • no more than 130 mg flash composition or no more than 500 mg black powder (C)

Burst charge:

  • no more than 400 mg of flash composition
2.3 Performance Comets must be positioned properly in the firework article in order to ignite reliably.

3.0 Reports

Description: Reports are rolled paper tubes that contain flash composition or black powder. Flash composition refers to pyrotechnic substances in powder form or as pyrotechnic units as presented in the fireworks, which are used to produce an aural effect or as a bursting charge or lifting charge, unless the time taken for the pressure rise is demonstrated to be more than 8 ms for 0.5 g of pyrotechnic substance in the HSL Flash Composition Test (Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and Criteria). Reports produce a loud noise and may also have the visual effect of a bright flash and smoke. They are available only as components in consumer fireworks. Reports must be ejected from the article.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR REPORTS (SECONDARY EFFECTS)
3.1 Construction
  • Reports must be fused to ignite reliably. The fuse may be delay composition with colour.
  • If more than one report is present in a tube, they must be part of a mine.
3.2 Charge Weight

Article with 1 report only:

  • no more than 800 mg flash composition/report or no more than 2 g black powder/report (C)

Article with more than 1 report:

  • Each report: no more than 130 mg flash composition/report or no more than 500 mg black powder/report (C)
  • Total report composition in the article: no more than 1 g and no more than 5% flash composition or no more than 4 g black powder (C)
3.3 Performance
  • If more than one report is present in a tube, they must be ejected all at once and not sequentially (C).

4.0 Shells

Description: A spherical or cylindrical shell with a hard paper casing containing stars and/or small effects, and a burst charge with a lift charge to propel the shell into the air. These are allowed only as a component of a shot tube.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR SHELLS (SECONDARY EFFECTS)
4.1 Construction
  • Outside diameter: no more than 50 mm (C)
  • No more than 1 shell/tube
4.2 Charge Weight
  • Total pyrotechnic composition (lift charge + shell): no more than 25 g (C)
  • Shells must not contain flash powder in their burst composition.
4.3 Performance
  • When functioned, the shells must not project fragments causing injury by falling on people (C).
  • Shells must be positioned properly in the firework article in order to ignite reliably.

5.0 Small Effects

Description: Small effects include, but are not limited to, small star bursts and miniature tourbillons.

Requirements:

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR SMALL EFFECTS (SECONDARY EFFECTS)
5.2 Charge Weight
  • Total pyrotechnic composition in a small effect: no more than 8 g (C)
  • The use of flash composition is allowed but must be in compliance with the charge limitation described under reports (refer to section 3.0 above) (C).
5.3 Performance

Small effects must be positioned properly in the firework article in order to ignite reliably.

APPENDIX C B GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR DISPLAY FIREWORKS

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR DISPLAY FIREWORKS
1 Shipping Packaging Packaging must comply with the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act and Regulations and the standards referred to therein.
1.1 Marking

Markings on the case used for transport must include (C):

  • UN classification
  • Proper UN shipping name
  • UN number
  • Dangerous goods safety marks
  • Name of the authorized explosives as per the list of authorized explosives (in either English or French)
  • Product identification number, if any
  • Name of manufacturer and/or authorized distributor
  • Packaging registration number
1.2 Condition of Packaging Loose composition is not allowed in packaging (C).
2 Labelling of Articles

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information9(C):

  • Authorized brand or trade name (note: packages of assortments must carry the trade names of the authorized fireworks they contain)
  • Name, logo or code that identifies the manufacturer and/or authorized distributor
  • Instructions for use and safety warnings in both English and French
  • Maximum height of the effect and safe spectator distance
  • For tube items, an arrow indicating the direction of exit of flame/fire
  • Date of manufacture and, if the manufacturer operates manufacturing operations in shifts, the shift of manufacture10
  • For angled articles, an arrow indicating the direction of the effect/fire/flame

________________________
9If marking the firework is not practical, the markings must appear on every inner package. In the absence of an inner package, the markings must appear on the shipping container. When the fireworks are too small to carry all the markings and are to be sold without the shipping packaging, they must carry the most important safety messages appropriate to their mode of functioning and the markings must be approved by the ERD.

10This requirement will apply when the Explosives Plain Language Regulations come into force.

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR DISPLAY FIREWORKS
2.1 Labels on Ejected Components

Aerial shells and separately fused ejected components must carry the following label with the name and address of the manufacturer. This label must remain attached to the tube or shell after firing (C)11:

  • AExplosives - Danger - Do not light. Hand to local police for destruction. / Explosifs - Danger - Ne pas allumer. Remettre à la police locale pour destruction.@
3 Construction of Articles

Articles must not:

  • Possess metallic components posing a hazard of igniting other fireworks (C)
  • Possess metallic components posing a missile hazard (C)
  • Be a missile hazard when functioned or malfunctioned (C)
  • Have loose pyrotechnic powder present in an unintended part of the article (C)
  • Have a parachute or a flare attached to the shell (C)
  • Have a stick (stick rockets for example) (C)
  • Be damaged through normal shipping and handling
  • Be subject to rupture

Articles must:

  • Be closed so that pyrotechnics cannot fall out of the tube (C)
  • Have a main fuse that is clearly marked and firmly secured (C)
  • Be equipped with a fuse covered in a manner that prevents accidental or unintentional ignition (C)
  • Have the end fuse covered by a removable cap of a distinguishing colour

________________________
11
If the print is too small, the following is acceptable when approved by the Chief Inspector : AExplosives - Danger - Explosifs.@

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR DISPLAY FIREWORKS
4 Performance  
4.1 Fusing

If to be lit by a portfire:

  • The fuse must be easily lit.
  • The average time ("1 standard deviation) between lighting and the first effect must be 3 to 10s.
4.2 Function

Articles must:

  • Function as described on the label (C)
  • Function in a safe, reliable, reproducible and predictable manner (C)

Articles must not:

  • Bulge, shatter, rupture or burn through the case and/or closures unless designed to do so (C)
  • Project unlit composition
  • Endanger or cause fire to operators, spectators or the environment outside the 20-m radius firing zone (C)
  • Have an impulsive noise level higher than 140 dB(A) within a distance of 25 m and at a height of 1.5m
  • Have a continuous noise level higher than 122 db(A) within a distance of 25 m and at a height of 1.5m
4.3 Lift Charge and Height of Effects

The lift charge must be sufficient to propel the effect high enough that it:

  • Poses no danger to the public (as per the requirements described in the Display Fireworks Manual) (C)
  • Allows burning pyrotechnics to be completely consumed in the air, i.e., all stars are completely consumed at a minimum of 10 m before returning to the ground and sound shells must function at a minimum of 20 m above the ground (C)
  • Allows inert debris to extinguish itself at a minimum of 10 m before returning to the ground (C)
5 Physical Measurements The measured gross weights and explosive charge weights must be as declared by the manufacturer.
6 Stability Units subjected to the stability test (75°C for 48 h) must pass.
7 Pyrotechnic Composition  
7.1 Chemical Analysis

Chemical analysis must not show the following discrepancies (C):

  • Detection of a component not present in the declaration
  • Non-detection of a component present in the declaration
  • Detection of over 200% for components specified as under 25% in the declaration
  • Detection of over 150% for other components specified as 25% or over in the declaration
  • Detection of under 50% for components specified as over 10% in the declaration
  • Detection of chlorate with sulphur (chlorate is allowed under restricted conditions only)
7.2 Flash Composition Flash composition refers to pyrotechnic substances in powder form or as pyrotechnic units as presented in the fireworks, that are used to produce an aural effect or as a bursting charge or lifting charge, unless the time taken for the pressure rise is demonstrated to be more than 8 ms for 0.5 g of pyrotechnic substance in the HSL Flash Composition Test (Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and Criteria).

 

APPENDIX D B SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR DISPLAY FIREWORKS

PART I: FIREWORKS ARTICLES

1.0 Aerial and Nautical Shells

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR AERIAL AND NAUTICAL SHELLS
1.1 Calibre

All shells (other than report shells) (C):

  • no more than 305 mm (12 inches)

Report shells (C):

  • no more than 152 mm (6 inches)
  • no more than 1 report per shell
1.2 Breaks
  • no more than 3 breaks, for all calibres (C)
  • final break may be a report.
1.3 Fuse The fuse to be lit by flame must overhang at least 150 mm from the top of the mortar.
1.4 Construction Shells larger than 152 mm (6 inches) must be equipped with a string to lower them into the mortar.
1.5 Mortar

Minimum difference between the shell and mortar diameters (mortar sizes are given as inside diameter for Schedule 40 steel pipe):

  • 5 mm

Maximum difference between the shell and mortar diameters (mortar sizes are given as inside diameter for Schedule 40 steel pipe):

  • For shells no more than 76 mm (3 inches): 8 mm
  • For shells between 102 and 152 mm (4 and 6 inches): 12 mm
  • For shells greater than 152 mm (6 inches): 15 mm
Unless specified by the manufacturer, the minimum length of the mortar is as per the US National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).
1.6 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix C
  • The size of the mortar to be used
  • The specific use (report shell, daylight shell, etc.)
  • The maximum height, dispersion and delay
  • For nautical shells, a firing table (angle vs. distance) must be supplied.
  • All nautical shells must have a clear, highly visible indication on the articles that they are indeed nautical shells (to differentiate from coloured shells and the like).
1.7 Charge Weights

Burst charge must:

  • Be large enough to produce the effect described by the manufacturer
  • Meet the height requirements outlined in section 4.3 of the general requirements for display fireworks

Report shells must not have:

  • over 85 g of flash composition
1.8 Transport Classification In July 2004, a working group within the UN Committee on the Transport of Dangerous Goods approved a default classification for the transport of fireworks that have not been tested. This default classification was implemented by the ERD on September 1, 2005. When a company prefers a more favorable classification, it has the option of testing. Similarly, if the ERD believes that the default position is inappropriate, it will require testing before a transport classification is granted (e.g., aerial colour shells over155mm but under 180 mm (with no more than 25% flash composition as loose powder and/or report effects)).

2.0 Aerial Wheels

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR AERIAL WHEELS
2.1 Construction

Drivers must:

  • Be securely attached to prevent any change in the direction of thrust produced by the jet (C)
  • Not come loose or separate from the article (C)

Supports must:

  • Be sufficiently strong and not come apart in flight (C)
2.2 Performance
  • Spinning and lifting drivers must not allow unintended communication between them.
  • The aerial wheel must spin on the ground before rising.
  • The angle of the trajectory must be no more than 30° from the vertical (C).
  • When functioned, the height of the article must comply with the instructions on the labels (C).
2.3 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix C
  • The additional warning AErratic flight, take precautions for spectators. / Trajectoire aérienne imprévisible, assurez la protection des spectateurs.@
  • For whistles, the additional warning AEmits a loud whistling noise. / Émet un son strident.@

Labels affixed to the fuse must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix C
  • All specific labelling requirements outlined in Part II, section 1.2 of this appendix

3.0 Battery/Combination

Synonyms: barrage, bombardos, cake, finale box, etc.

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR BATTERIES/COMBINATIONS
3.1 Performance
  • Items must not tip over during functioning (C).
  • Items must not come apart during functioning (C).
3.2 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix C
  • For angled articles, an arrow indicating the direction of the effect/fire/flame
  • For whistles, the additional warning AEmits a loud whistling noise. / Émet un son strident.@

Separately fused ejected components must carry the following label with the name and address of the manufacturer. This label must remain attached to the tube or shell after firing (C):

  • AExplosives - Danger - Do not light. Hand to local police for destruction. / Explosifs - Danger - Ne pas allumer. Remettre à la police locale pour destruction.@

4.0 Exhibition Candles

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR EXHIBITION CANDLES
4.1 Construction

Delay compositions or other barriers must be present to prevent the rapid unplanned passage of fire down the tube, but must minimize migration of expelling charge.

4.2 Performance
  • All stars, shells, comets, etc. must function.
  • There must be no passage of fire down the tube.
  • The time interval between the shots must be between 2 and 5 s.
4.3 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix C
  • An arrow indicating the direction of exit of flame/fire
  • The additional warning AThis article must not be held in the hand. /Cet article ne doit pas être tenu dans la main.@

Separately fused ejected components must carry the following label with the name and address of the manufacturer. This label must remain attached to the tube or shell after firing (C):

  • AExplosives - Danger - Do not light. Hand to local police for destruction. / Explosifs - Danger - Ne pas allumer. Remettre à la police locale pour destruction.@

5.0 Firecrackers

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRECRACKERS
5.1 Construction

Physical dimensions must be:

  • Length no more than 5 cm
  • Diameter no more than 6.5 mm
5.2 Charge Weight

Charge weights must be (C):

  • Black powder no more than 500 mg
  • Flash composition no more than 130 mg
5.3 Performance
  • Debris permitted within a 3 m radius
  • Firecrackers sold in a cluster must not explode simultaneously.
5.4 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix C

6.0 Flares

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR FLARES
6.1 Performance

Must burn continuously with a steady flame

6.2 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix C

7.0 Fountains

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR FOUNTAINS
7.1 Performance
  • When used as drivers on wheels, fountains must light within 1 s (C).
  • Article must burn continuously with a steady flame.
  • Height of sparks must be no more than 20 m.
7.2 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix C.
  • For whistles, the additional warning AEmits a loud whistling noise. / Émet un son strident.@

8.0 Mines

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR MINES
8.1 Performance

All effects must be ejected at the same time

8.2 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in Section 2.0 of Appendix C
  • An arrow indicating the direction of exit of flame/fire

Separately fused ejected components must carry the following label with the name and address of the manufacturer. This label must remain attached to the tube or shell after firing (C):

  • AExplosives - Danger - Do not light. Hand to local police for destruction. / Explosifs - Danger - Ne pas allumer. Remettre à la police locale pour destruction.@

9.0 Waterfalls and Set Pieces

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR WATERFALLS AND SET PIECES
9.1 Construction

The framework of a set piece and the wire of a waterfall must be strong enough and sufficiently secured to remain in position during functioning.

9.2 Labels

The individual pieces for the waterfall or set piece need not be labelled, provided that instructions be supplied with the articles.

10.0 Wheels

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR WATERFALLS AND SET PIECES
10.1 Construction

The nail supplied with the wheel must be sufficiently strong and long to hold the wheel in place (C).

10.2 Performance
  • Wheel must revolve smoothly, without stopping or hesitating (C).
  • Frame must not break, warp or catch fire (C).
  • Drivers must remain attached to their support or fall within 7 m of a vertical support when the wheel=s nail is 3 m above ground (C).
10.3 Labels

Labels affixed to fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix C
  • For whistles, the additional warning AEmits a loud whistling noise. / Émet un son strident.@

PART II: FIREWORKS ACCESSORIES

1.0 Electric Matches

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC MATCHES
1.1 Performance
  • 0/10 units must fire under the following conditions: 0.2 A of electric current for 30 s (C).
  • 10/10 units must fire upon application of the all-fire current declared by the manufacturer (C).
  • Matchheads shall deflagrate and not detonate.
1.2 Labels

Labels affixed to the fireworks or on the packaging containing the fireworks must include the following information (C):

  • All general labelling requirements outlined in section 2.0 of Appendix C
  • All-fire current
  • No-fire current
  • Resistance, including that of the leg wires

2.0 Portfires

ITEM CHARACTERISTIC SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR PORTFIRES
2.1 Construction

The construction must allow the attachment of an extension that remains cool while in use.

2.2 Performance

Ignition time:

  • By flame: no more than 10 s (C)
  • By friction: no more than 3 trials (C)

Burn time:

  • Permitted variance from specified burn time: "10 s
2.3 Labels The labelling must state the burn time of the portfire.

APPENDIX E B EXAMPLE OF A TECHNICAL DECLARATION FOR MULTIPLE TUBE ITEMS

EXAMPLE OF A TECHNICAL DECLARATION FOR MULTIPLE TUBE ITEMS

Item No.: 1234
Product Name: Battery ABC
Total Gross Weight: 100 g "4 g
Total Explosives Weight: 24 g "1 g
Size: 10 x 10 x 15 cm
Date of Drawing:September 1, 2007

Effects:
Tube A: Shoots green comet
Tube B: Shoots blue comet
Tube C: Shoots yellow comet
Tube D: Shoots red comet

Charge Weights:
Tube A: 5 g green composition + 1 g lift charge = 6 g total
Tube B: 5 g blue composition + 1 g lift charge = 6 g total
Tube C: 5 g yellow composition + 1 g lift charge = 6 g total
Tube D: 5 g red composition + 1 g lift charge = 6 g total

Drawings of Tubes and Article:
Drawings of Tubes and Article

Note that the following must also be declared:

  • Tolerances for chemicals, weights and dimensions
  • Chemicals/ingredients and physical dimensions, etc.