Mountain Pine Beetle Program (2007–2010)

Program description

On January 12, 2007, the Minister of Natural Resources announced actions that the federal government would take to fight the mountain pine beetle infestation and address the impacts on the forest industry and communities it supports. Through these actions, the Government of Canada worked closely with the Province of British Columbia and other agencies to deliver a comprehensive integrated strategy to combat the infestation on federal, provincial, municipal and First Nations lands.

Preceded by the Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative, which ran from 2002 to 2007, the federal Mountain Pine Beetle Program included forestry measures, delivered by Natural Resources Canada; a Community Economic Diversification Initiative and an Airport Improvements Initiative, led by Western Economic Diversification Canada; and transportation infrastructure projects, delivered by Transport Canada.

The forestry measures encompassed three broad objectives:

  • to control the spread of the mountain pine beetle infestation, particularly slowing the eastward progression
  • to assess the impacts and develop options for recovering , where reasonable, the use of beetle-kill timber and to complete natural resource surveys within the beetle zone
  • to mitigate post-beetle impacts on community health and safety and on forest resource sustainability .

The Mountain Pine Beetle Program, which ran from 2007 to 2010, has now ended and funding is no longer available.

As part of the Mountain Pine Beetle Program, Natural Resources Canada also provided funding to the collection and distribution of new geoscience information from the central region of British Columbia.


Controlling the spread

Recognizing that epidemic beetle populations expand at an exponential rate, the direct control measures under the Mountain Pine Beetle Program were strategically focused along the eastern front of the beetle epidemic in British Columbia, in portions of the major mountain passes between British Columbia and Alberta, and in other areas of Alberta to complement the control activities of the provinces and forest licensees (see map below).

The Mountain Pine Beetle Program provided funding and scientific expertise to assist provincial agencies in British Columbia and Alberta in their control efforts on provincial Crown forestlands. The program provided similar assistance with beetle control efforts delivered by Parks Canada, First Nations and private forestland owners.

MPB map

Areas considered for control activity, March 2007.

Larger image

Based on the experience of scientists working on mountain pine beetle outbreaks, the program developed a “lessons learned” package. The lessons learned include the following:

  • Effective decision-making requires accurate and accessible forest inventory information, threat mapping, and continuous monitoring of beetle populations.
  • Harvesting should be directed to reduce the presence of beetle-infested and vulnerable pine as much as possible, especially within identified vectors/corridors of potential beetle migration.
  • Where direct control is undertaken, newly infested trees must be removed and disposed of promptly.
  • Transportation restrictions on infested logs may be required, and mill sites should be monitored to prevent beetle spread from harvested trees.
  • Pheromone baiting can serve to control endemic population levels of beetles.
  • Where very large beetle populations exist, direct control will be impractical.
  • There are no practicable operational remote sensing options for early detection (green attack stage) of beetle attack.

Research projects funded under this objective of the Mountain Pine Beetle Program included threat assessments, outbreak detection and monitoring, planning tools and decision support systems.

Threat assessments

Threat assessments

Mountain pine beetle range expansion: Assessing the threat to Canada's boreal forest by evaluating the endemic niche Final Report Ver. 1.1. 2011. Bleiker, K.P.; Carroll, A.L.; Smith, G.D. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2010-02. 17 p.

Impacts of climate change on mountain pine beetle habitat connectivity in western Canada. 2011. Riel, W.G.; Burnett, C.; Fall, A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2010-04. 26 p.

Effects of fire return rates on traversability of lodgepole pine forests for mountain pine beetle and the use of patch metrics to estimate traversability. 2006. Barclay, H.J.; Li, Chao; Benson, L.; Taylor, S.W.; Shore, T.L. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-01. 32 p.

Impacts of Climate Change on Range Expansion by the Mountain Pine Beetle. 2006. Carroll, A.L.; Régnière, J.; Logan, J.A.; Taylor, S.W.; Bentz, B.; Powell, J.A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-14. 20 p.

Dawson Creek Mountain Pine Beetle Spread Analysis: Application of the SELES-MPB Landscape-Scale Mountain Pine Beetle Model in the Dawson Timber Supply Area and Tree Farm Licence 48. 2007. Fall, A.; Shore, T.L.; Riel, W.G. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-18. 22 p.

Risk assessment of the threat of mountain pine beetle to Canada’s boreal and eastern pine resources. 2008. Nealis, V.G.; Peter, B., compilers. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, British Columbia. Information Report BC-X-417. 38 p.

Incorporating Present and Future Climatic Suitability into Decision Support Tools to Predict Geographic Spread of the Mountain Pine Beetle. 2008. Shore, T.L.; Riel, W.G.; Fall, A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-10. 22 p.

Using reconstructed outbreak histories of mountain pine beetle, fire and climate to predict the risk of future outbreaks. 2008. Lewis, K.J.; Hrinkevich, K. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-16. 10 p.

Forecasting mountain pine beetle-overwintering mortality in a variable environment. 2009. Cooke, B.J. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-03. 25 p.

Characterization of the Jack Pine Forests of Western Canada for Susceptibility to Infestation by the Mountain Pine Beetle. 2009. Shore, T.L.; Fall, A.; Burnett, C.; Riel, W.G. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-04. 29 p.

Landscape-level analysis of mountain pine beetle in British Columbia: spatiotemporal development and spatial synchrony within the present outbreak. 2009. Aukema, B.H.; Carroll, A.L.; Zhu, J.; Raffa, K.F.; Sickley, T.A.; Taylor, S.W. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-29. 22 p.

Potential for range expansion of mountain pine beetle into the boreal forest of North America. 2010. Safranyik, L.; Carroll, A.L.; Régnière, J.; Langor, D.W.; Riel, W.G.; Shore, T.L.; Peter, B.; Cooke, B.J.; Nealis, V.G.; Taylor, S.W. The Canadian Entomologist 142(5): 415-442.

 

Outbreak detection and monitoring

Outbreak detection and monitoring

Mountain pine beetle survey in the Peace Region of British Columbia and adjacent areas in Alberta. 2011. Pellow, K.W.; Thandi, G.; Unger, L.S. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2010-05. 12 p.

A technique for mapping the impact of mountain pine beetle. 2004. Wulder, M.A.; Franklin, S.E.; Skakun, R.S.; Dymond, C.C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Technology Transfer Note 32. 4 p.

Provincial Level Projection of the Current Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak: An Overview of the model (BCMPB) and Draft Results of Year 1 of the Project. 2004. Eng, M.; Fall, A.; Hughes, J.; Shore, T.L.; Riel, W.G.; Hall, P. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2004-01. 39 p.

Assessment of potential for remote sensing detection of bark beetle-infested areas during green attack: a literature review. 2005. Niemann, K.O.; Visintini, F. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-02. 14 p.

Enhancing forest inventories with mountain pine beetle infestation information. 2005. Wulder, M.A.; Skakun, R.S.; Franklin, S.E.; White, J.C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-18. 24 p.

Provincial-Level Projection of the Current Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak: An Overview of the Model (BCMPB v2) and Results of Year 2 of the Project. 2005. Eng, M.; Fall, A.; Hughes, J.; Shore, T.L.; Riel, W.G.; Hall, P.; Walton, A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-20. 54 p.

Remote sensing in the survey of mountain pine beetle impacts: Review and recommendations. 2005. Wulder, M.A.; Dymond, C.C.; White, J.C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Information Report BC-X-401. 56 p.

Detection of red attack stage mountain pine beetle infestation with high spatial resolution satellite imagery. 2005. White, J.C.; Wulder, M.A.; Brooks, D.; Reich, R.; Wheate, R.D. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-24. 25 p.

Surveying mountain pine beetle damage of forests: A review of remote sensing opportunities. 2005. Wulder, M.A.; Dymond, C.C.; White, J.C.; Leckie, D.G.; Carroll, A.L. Forest Ecology and Management 221: 27-41.

Characterization of the diminishing accuracy in detecting forest insect damage over time. 2005. Wulder, M.A.; Skakun, R.S.; Dymond, C.C.; Kurz, W.A.; White, J.C. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 31: 421–431.

A Procedure for Mapping and Monitoring Mountain Pine Beetle Red Attack Forest Damage using Landsat Imagery. 2006. Wulder, M.A.; White, J.C.; Coops, N.C.; Han, T.; Alvarez, M.F.; Butson, C.R.; Yuan, X. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Information Report BC-X-404. 30 p.

Assessment of Quickbird high spatial resolution imagery to detect red attack damage due to mountain pine beetle infestation. 2006. Coops, N.C.; Johnson, M.; Wulder, M.A.; White, J.C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-19. 31 p.

Augmenting the existing survey hierarchy for mountain pine beetle red-attack damage with satellite remotely sensed data. 2006. Wulder, M.A.; White, J.C.; Bentz, B.; Ebata, T. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-05. 28 p.

Integrating remotely sensed and ancillary data sources to characterize a mountain pine beetle infestation. 2006. Coops, N.C.; Wulder, M.A.; White, J.C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-07. 31 p.

Detecting and mapping mountain pine beetle red-attack damage with SPOT-5 10-m multispectral imagery. 2006. White, J.C.; Wulder, M.A.; Grills, D. BC Journal of Ecosystems Management 7(2): 105-118.

Detecting and mapping mountain pine beetle red-attack damage with SPOT-5 10-m multispectral imagery. 2006. White, J.C.; Wulder, M.A.; Grills, D. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-17. 25 p.

Calculating risk of mountain pine beetle attack: comparison of distance- and density-based estimates of beetle pressure. 2007. Wulder, M.A.; White, J.C.; Dymond, C.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Boots, B.; Shore, T.L. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2007-11. 18 p.

Radar observation and aerial capture of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopk. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) above the forest canopy. 2008. Jackson, P.; Straussfogel, D; Lindgren, B.S.; Mitchell, S.; Murphy, B. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2007-02. 32 p.

Working paper: Monitoring tree-level insect population dynamics with multi-scale and multi-source remote sensing. 2008. Wulder, M.A.; Ortlepp, S.M.; White, J.C.; Coops, N.C.; Coggins, S.B. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-20. 32 p.

Linking survey detection accuracy with ability to mitigate populations of mountain pine beetle. 2009. Coggins, S.B.; Wulder, M.A.; Coops, N.C.; White, J.C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-28. 17 p.

 

Planning tools and decision support systems

Planning tools and decision support systems

Arc/Info Macro Language (AML) scripts for mapping susceptibility and risk of volume losses to mountain pine beetle in British Columbia. 2004. Wulder, M.A.; Seemann, D.; Dymond, C.C.; Shore, T.L.; Riel, W.G. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoira, BC. Technology Transfer Note 33. 4 p.

Beetle-proofed lodgepole pine stands in interior British Columbia have less damage from mountain pine beetle. 2005. Whitehead, R.J.; Russo, G. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Information Report BC-X-402. 17 p.

A Synthesis of the Economic Efficiency of Beetle-Proofing Management Options. 2005. Patriquin, M.N.; Leake, N.L.; White, W.A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-17. 34 p.

Evaluation of risk assessment of mountain pine beetle infestations. 2006. Dymond, C.C.; Wulder, M.A.; Shore, T.L.; Nelson, T.A.; Boots, B.; Riel, W.G. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 21(1): 5-13.

Estimating the probability of mountain pine beetle red-attack damage. 2006. Wulder, M.A.; White, J.C.; Bentz, B.; Alvarez, M.F.; Coops, N.C. Remote Sensing of Environment 101(2): 150-166.

The balance of complexity in mechanistic modeling: Risk analysis in the mountain pine beetle. 2006. Nelson, W.A.; Potapov, A.; Lewis, M.A.; Hundsdörfer, A.E.; He, F. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-03. 26 p.

Large-area mountain pine beetle infestations: spatial data representation and accuracy. 2006. Nelson, T.A.; Boots, B.; Wulder, M.A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-02. 19 p.

Dawson Creek Mountain Pine Beetle Spread Analysis: Application of the SELES-MPB Landscape-Scale Mountain Pine Beetle Model in the Dawson Timber Supply Area and Tree Farm Licence 48. 2007. Fall, A.; Shore, T.L.; Riel, W.G. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-18. 22 p.

Using conditional spatial randomization to identify insect infestation hot spots. 2007. Nelson, T.A.; Boots, B. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2007-12. 18 p.

Evaluation of risk assessment of mountain pine beetle infestations. 2007. Dymond, C.C.; Wulder, M.A.; Shore, T.L.; Nelson, T.A.; Boots, B.; Riel, W.G. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2007-13. 12 p.

Environmental effects on host selection and dispersal of mountain pine beetle. 2007. Reid, M. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2007-07. 14 p.

Exploring the spatial-temporal interaction of mountain pine beetle infestations. 2008. Robertson, C.; Nelson, T.A.; Boots, B. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2007-09. 39 p.

Mountain Pine Beetle Dispersal through Managed and Unmanaged Landscapes. 2009. Reid, M. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-17. 17 p.

Source or sink stands - Can stand parameters be used to predict mountain pine beetle brood production with enough precision to be useful for assigning treatment priorities? 2009. Björklund, N.; Lindgren, B.S.; Shore, T.L.; Cudmore, T. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-03. 12 p.

Balancing risks of disturbance from mountain pine beetle and western spruce budworm. 2009. Nealis, V.G.; Noseworthy, M.K.; Turnquist, R.; Waring, V.R. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39(4): 839-848.

MPB Biodiversity (MPBio): A GIS-based Toolbox for Exploring the Ecological Consequences of Salvage Logging Description and User's Guide. 2009. Vernier, P.; Chan-McLeod, A.C.; Moy, A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-21. 15 p.

Preliminary risk rating for mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine forests over large areas with ordinal regression modelling. 2009. Robertson, C.; Wulder, M.A.; Nelson, T.A.; White, J.C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-19. 24 p.

 


Recovering economic value

The Mountain Pine Beetle Program supported the exploration of alternative means to mitigate the economic impact of the beetle epidemic. Issues specific to using timber affected by mountain pine beetle (MPB) were identified, and strategies were developed that allowed the forest sector to use post-MPBfibre and continue to sell products into established product markets.

The program invested in research and development of methods to use salvaged timber in traditional manufacturing mills and product markets. Research was completed on post-beetle timber shelf-life, timber salvage impacts and options, tall oil recovery, panelboard manufacturing, impacts on pulp and paper processes, bioenergy, and impacts on future timber supplies.

Research projects funded under this objective of the Mountain Pine Beetle Program included exploration of alternate fibre use and ecological impacts. The results of this research are available in the Canadian Forest Service Publications database.

Exploration of alternate fibre use

Exploration of alternate fibre use

Markets for forest products following a large disturbance: Opportunities and challenges from the mountain pine beetle outbreak in western Canada. 2011. Bogdanski, B.E.C.; Sun, L.; Peter, B.; Stennes, B. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Information Report BC-X-429. 68 p.

Modelling bioenergy uptake in the British Columbia fibre allocation and transport model. 2011. Stennes, B.; Niquidet, K.; van Kooten, G.C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Information Report BC-X-431. 23 p.

Sample plan to measure tree characteristics related to the shelf life of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine trees in British Columbia. 2005. Thrower, J.; Willis, R.; De Jong, R.J.; Gilbert, D.; Robertson, H. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-01. 17 p.

An annotated bibliography on the effect of bluestain on wood utilization with emphasis on mountain pine beetle vectored bluestain. 2005. Byrne, T.; Woo, K.L.; Uzunovic, A.; Watson, P.A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-04. 58 p.

Ophiostomatoid and basidiomycetous fungi associated with green, red, and grey lodgepole pines after mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation. 2005. Kim, J.-J.; Allen, E.A.; Humble, L.M.; Breuil, C. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35(2): 274-284.

Maximizing value recovery from mountain pine beetle-killed pine for veneer products. 2005. Wang, B.; Dai, C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-09. 33 p.

Performance of posts laminated with blue-stained mountain pine beetle lodgepole pine. 2005. Lam, F.; Gu, J.; Zaturecky, I. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-05. 24 p.

Bleaching treatments for blue-stained mountain pine beetle lodgepole pine. 2005. Evans, P.D. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-06. 15 p.

Current knowledge of characteristics and utilization of post-mountain pine beetle wood in solid wood products. 2005. Byrne, A.; Stonestreet, C.; Peter, B. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-08. 26 p.

Alternative wood products from blue-stained mountain pine beetle lumber: non-structural laminated products. 2005. Zaturecky, I.; Chiu, I. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-07. 20 p.

Rate of deterioration, degrade and fall of trees killed by mountain pine beetle: A synthesis of the literature and experiential knowledge. 2005. Lewis, K.J.; Hartley, I. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-14. 21 p.

Improving value recovery of OSB from post-mountain pine beetle wood. 2005. Feng, M.W.; Knudson, R.M. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-13. 74 p.

Ophiostomatoid and basidiomycetous fungi associated with green, red and grey lodgepole pines after mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation. 2005. Kim, J.-J.; Allen, E.A.; Humble, L.M.; Breuil, C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-10. 18 p.

Optimizing Drying of Mountain Pine Beetle Wood. 2005. Oliveira, L.C.; Wallace, J.; Cai, L. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-12. 30 p.

Machine stress rated (MSR) lumber grade recovery of post mountain pine beetle wood. 2005. Lum, C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-21. 20 p.

Addressing Marketplace Durability Issues with Post-Mountain Pine Beetle Lodgepole Pine - A Compilation of Three Reports. 2005. Byrne, T.; Uzunovic, A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-25. 46 p.

Predicting decay and degrade rates in standing and fallen trees killed by mountain pine beetle: A literature review. 2005. Sharp, Barb (UNBC); Lewis, Kathy (UNBC) Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-15. 38 p.

Determining fungal diversity on Dendroctonus ponderosae and Ips pini affecting lodgepole pine using cultural and molecular methods. 2006. Lim, Y.W.; Kim, J.-J.; Lu, M.; Breuil, C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-04. 20 p.

Diversity of fungi associated with mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and infested lodgepole pines in British Columbia. 2006. Lee, S.; Kim, J.-J.; Breuil, C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-06. 20 p.

Quantifying Lumber Value Recovery from Beetle-killed Trees. 2006. Orbay, L.; Goudie, D. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-09. 32 p.

A wood and fibre quality-deterioration model for mountain pine beetle-killed trees by biogeoclimatic subzone. 2006. Trent, T.; Lawrence, V.; Woo, K. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-10. 23 p.

Wood decay and degradation in standing lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latfolia Engelman.) killed by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa Hopkins: Coleoptera) 2006. Lewis, K.J.; Thompson, D.; Hartley, I.; Pasca, S. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-11. 18 p.

Evaluation and review of potential impacts of mountain pine beetle infestation to composite board production and related manufacturing activities in British Columbia. 2006. Hartley, I.; Pasca, S. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-12. 17 p.

Bioenergy options for woody feedstock: are trees killed by mountain pine beetle in British Columbia a viable bioenergy resource. 2006. Stennes, B.; McBeath, A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, British Colmbia. Information Report BC-X-405E. 29 p.

Development of a portable spectroscopic sensor to measure wood and fibre properties in standing mountain pine beetle-attacked trees and decked logs. 2006. Hsieh, E.; Uy, N.; Wallbacks, L. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-16. 33 p.

Evaluation of in-woods chipping options for beetle-killed lodgepole pine wood. 2006. Bicho, P.; Hussein, A.; Yuen, B.; Gee, W.; Johal, S. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-19. 32 p.

Heat disinfestation of mountain pine beetle-affected wood. 2007. Uzunovic, A.; Khadempour, L. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2007-14. 23 p.

Optimization of gluing, lay-up and pressing for mountain pine beetle plywood. 2007. Wang, B.; Dai, C.; Wharton, S. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2007-03. 50 p.

True-shape and defects data from mountain pine beetle-affected stems. 2007. Brdicko, J. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2007-04. 30 p.

Cost implications for thermomechanical pulping and brightening of blue-stained chips. 2007. Hu, T.; Johal, S.; Yuen, B.; Williams, T.; Osmond; Watson, P.A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2007-10. 27 p.

Field Sampling for Attributes Related to the Shelf Life of Mountain Pine Beetle Killed Lodgepole Pine in the Sub Boreal Spruce (SBS) Biogeoclimatic Zone. 2007. Thrower, J.; Webb, J.; Harrison, D. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2007-01. 68 p.

Operational extractives management from mountain pine beetle-attacked lodgepole pine for pulp and papermaking. 2007. Allen, L.; Uloth, V. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2007-15. 45 p.

Quantifying the effect of extractives from mountain pine beetle-attacked lodgepole pine for pulp and papermaking. 2008. Bicho, P.; Woo, C.; Dalpke, B. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-01. 57 p.

Chemical, mechanical, and durability properties of mountain pine beetle infested timber. 2008. Kadla, J.F.; Lam, F.; Zaturecky, I. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Program Working Paper 2008-02. 16 p.

Fitness and pathogenicity of the fungi associated with the mountain pine beetle and other secondary beetles in green attack. 2008. Breuil, C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-04. 19 p.

Overcoming the brightness ceiling for mechanical pulps prepared from blue-stained lodgepole pine chips. 2008. Hu, T.; Williams, T.; Yazdi, S.; Wallbacks, L.; Watson, P.A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-05. 29 p.

Kraft pulp and paper mill utilization options for grey-stage wood. 2008. Radiotis, T.; Berry, R.; Hartley, I.; Todoruk, T Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-09. 73 p.

Assessment of the economic (pulping and pulp quality) effects of increased lodgepole pine in SPF chip mixtures. 2008. Dalpke, B.; Hussein, A.; Trent, T.; Gee, W.; Johal, S.; Yuen, B.; Watson, P.A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2007-08. 88 p.

Decay fungi and associated rates of decay in standing trees killed by mountain pine beetle. 2008. Breuil, C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-11. 19 p.

Temporal change in wood quality attributes in standing dead beetle-killed lodgepole pine. 2008. Magnussen, S.; Harrison, D. The Forestry Chronicle 84(3): 392-400.

Minimizing the Impact of Mountain Pine Beetle Veneer on Plywood Glue Dry-Out and Delamination. 2008. Xu, H.; He, G.; Dai, C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-12. 16 p.

Assessing the influence of time-since-death: Pilot scale kraft and thermomechanical pulping of beetle-killed lodgepole pine. 2008. Dalpke, B.; Hussein, A.; Johal, S.; Yuen, B.; Ortiz, D.A.; Watson, P.A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-26. 77 p.

Pilot mechanical pulping assessment of dry blue-stained and grey-stage wood chips from beetle-killed lodgepole pine. 2009. Hu, T.; Omholt, I.; Johal, S.; Yuen, B.; zhao, M.; Drummond, J.; Miles, K.B.; Stacey, M.; Hellstern, M.; Watson, P.A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-25. 53 p.

Assessing the shelf life attributes of mountain pine beetle-killed trees. 2009. Magnussen, S.; Harrison, D. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-27. 24 p.

Change in wood quality and fall rate of trees up to ten years after death from mountain pine beetle. 2009. Lewis, K.J.; Thompson, D. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-30. 30 p.

Proposed protocol for evaluating potential strength-reducing characteristics in lumber after a catastrophic event: Pilot application and next steps. 2009. Lum, C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-01. 10 p.

Quality assessment for structural lumber from mountain pine beetle-attacked timber: Data analysis. 2009. Trott, P.; Lum, C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-02. 12 p.

Proposed protocol for assessing and responding to lumber strength-reducing characteristics associated with a catastrophic regional event. Addendum to Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-01. 2009. Lum, C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-01.1. 19 p.

Near infrared detection of decay in post-mountain pine beetle lumber. 2009. Stirling, R. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-08. 28 p.

Impact of mountain pine beetle-attacked lodgepole pine logs on veneer processing. 2009. Wang, B.; Dai, C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-12. 18 p.

Determining the relationship between wood and fibre quality of mountain pine beetle-killed wood and paper quality of mechanical paper. 2009. Francis, B.; Dalpke, B.; Hu, T.; Bicho, P. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-29. 29 p.

Feasibility of composing green mountain pine beetle veneers. 2009. Dai, C.; He, G.; Xu, H. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-09. 18 p.

Development of high-performance and durable engineered wood products from mountain pine beetle veneers using novel resin impregnation technologies. 2009. Wang, B.; Chui, Y.H.; He, G.; Xie, D. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-10. 44 p.

Heat disinfestation of decay fungi found in post-mountain pine beetle wood. 2008. Uzunovic, A.; Khadempour, L.; Leung, K. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-14. 12 p.

Waste fatty acid addition to black liquor to decrease tall oil soap solubility and increase skimming efficiency in kraft mills pulping mountain pine beetle-infested wood. 2009. Uloth, V.; Shewchuk, D.; Guy, E.; van Heek, R. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-26. 24 p.

The effect of varying air injection rates on tall oil soap skimming efficiency for low fatty acid/resin acid ratio soaps produced by pulping mountain pine beetle-infected wood. 2009. Uloth, V.; Guy, E. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-27. 11 p.

Bioconversion of beetle killed lodgepole pine to bioethanol. 2009. Saddler, J. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-24. 33 p.

Improving the stability of oriented strand board manufactured from mountain pine beetle wood. 2009. Semple, K.; Cullis, I.; Evans, P. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-18. 61 p.

Feasibility of using X-ray scanning to characterize mountain pine beetle check severity for optimizing log sorting and lumber manufacturing processes. 2009. Brdicko, J. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-25. 61 p.

Effects of acetone extractives in grey-stage mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine on kraft mills. 2010. Allen, L.; Gagné, A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-28. 15 p.

 

Ecological impacts

Ecological impacts

Possible Forest Futures: Balancing biological and social risks in mountain pine beetle epidemics. 2005. Kimmins, J.P.; Seely, B.; Welham, C.; Zhong, A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-11. 57 p.

Exploring opportunities for mitigating the ecological impacts of current and future mountain pine beetle outbreaks through improved planning: A focus on northeastern British Columbia. 2008. Seely, B.; Nelson, John; Vernier, P.; Wells, R.; Moy, A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-08. 56 p.

Temporal composition and structure of post-beetle lodgepole pine stands: Regeneration, growth, economics, and harvest implications. 2009. Runzer, K.; Hassegawa, M.; Balliet, N.; Bittencourt, E.; Hawkins, C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-23. 68 p.

Factors affecting the ecological legacy of unsalvaged post-mountain pine beetle stands. 2009. Chan-McLeod, A.C.; Zhu, X.; Klinkenberg, B. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-19. 20 p.

Modeling the effects of a mountain pine beetle outbreak and potential management responses in Alberta's eastern slopes. 2009. Schneider, R.; Arienti, M.C.; Stelfox, B.; Farr, D.; Boutin, S. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-11. 10 p.

 


Protecting forest resources and communities

Map of community and First Nations participation

Federal Mountain Pine Beetle Program Community and First Nations Participation

Larger image

The Mountain Pine Beetle Program also supported initiatives to reduce post-beetle threats to community and human safety, including First Nations, from forest fire and hazardous dead trees. Beetle impacts on sustaining forest and community futures were also examined, particularly as they related to future forest values and non-timber forest use.

Funding was provided to First Nations, communities and school districts for fuel management and hazard tree removal in post-infested areas. In all cases, fuel management was guided by professionally prepared wildfire protection plans and current FireSmart program prescriptions. Access to federal funding was designed to complement existing provincial and community safety programs. First Nations and non–First Nations communities were active participants in these activities (see map below).

The Program also completed research on beetle epidemic impacts on forest hydrology and management options to maintain forest sustainability objectives within a post-beetle timber salvage regime.

Hydrological assessments

Hydrological assessments

A synthesis of the hydrological consequences of large-scale mountain pine beetle disturbance. 2011. Schnorbus, M. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2010-01. 30 p

Quantifying the water resource impacts of mountain pine beetle and associated salvage harvest operations across a range of watershed scales: Hydrologic modeling of the Fraser River Basin. 2010. Schnorbus, M.; Bennett, K.; Werner, A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Information Report BC-X-423. 64 p.

Review and synthesis of potential hydrologic impacts of mountain pine beetle and related harvesting activities in British Columbia. 2005. Helie, J.F.; Peters, D.L.; Tattrie, K.R.; Gibson, J.J. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-23. 26 p.

Stream temperature responses to clearcut logging in the central interior of British Columbia: test of the predictive model developed by Mellina et al. (2002). 2006. Mellina, E. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-08. 32 p.

Mountain pine beetle impacts on channel morphology and woody debris in forested landscapes. 2008. Hassan, M.; Hogan, D.; Bird, Steve Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-07. 42 p.

Effects of overstory mortality on snow accumulation and ablation. 2008. Teti, P. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-13. 34 p.

Impact of mountain pine beetle infestation and salvage harvesting on seasonal snow melt and runoff. 2009. Boon, S. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-24. 28 p.

The Bowron River Watershed: A landscape level assessment of post-beetle change in stream riparian function. 2009. Nordin, L.; Maloney, D.; Rex, J.; Krauskopf, P.; Tschaplinski, P.J.; Hogan, D. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-22. 35 p.

Hydrologic effects of mountain pine beetle infestation and salvage-harvesting operations. 2009. Rex, J.; Dubé, S. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-05. 44 p.

Effects of overstorey mortality on snow accumulation and ablation - Phase 2. 2009. Teti, P. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-15. 19 p.

Effects of pine beetle infestations and treatments on hydrology and geomorphology: Integrating stand-level data and knowledge into mesoscale watershed functions. 2009. Alila, Y.; Bewley, D.; Kuras, P.; Marren, P.; Hassan, M.; Luo, C.; Blair, T. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-06. 69 p.

Mountain pine beetle and salvage harvesting influence on small stream riparian zones. 2009. Rex, J.; Krauskopf, P.; Maloney, D.; Tschaplinski, P.J. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-17. 48 p.

Development and application of a peak-flow hazard model for the Fraser basin (British Columbia) 2009. Carver, M.; Weiler, M.; Scheffler, C.; Rosin, K. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-13. 35 p.

Development of a low-flow hazard model for the Fraser basin, British Columbia. 2009. Carver, M.; Weiler, M.; Stahl, K.; Scheffler, C.; Schneider, J.; Naranjo, J.A.B. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-14. 25 p.

 

Sustainable forest management

Sustainable forest management

Forest health and mortality of advance regeneration following canopy tree mortality caused by the mountain pine beetle. 2011. Lewis, K.J. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2010-03. 26 p.

The economics of salvage harvesting and reforestation in British Columbia's mountain pine beetle-affected forests. 2011. Peter, B.; Bogdanski, B.E.C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Information Report BC-X-425. 29 p.

Mountain pine beetle: A synthesis of the ecological consequences of large-scale disturbances on sustainable forest management, with emphasis on biodiversity. 2011. Bunnell, F.L.; Kremsater, L.L.; Houde, I. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Information Report BC-X-426. 99 p.

Evaluating the effects of large-scale salvage logging for mountain pine beetle on terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates. 2004. Bunnell, F.L.; Squires, K.A.; Houde, I. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2004-02. 57 p.

Regional economic implications of the mountain pine beetle infestation in the northern interior of British Columbia. 2005. Patriquin, M.N.; Heckbert, S.; Nickerson, C.; Spence, M.M.; White, W.A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-03. 58 p.

Review and Synthesis of Regeneration Methods in Beetle-Killed Stands Following Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Attack: A Literature Review. 2005. Mitchell, J. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-16. 30 p.

Predicting mountain pine beetle impacts on lodgepole pine stands and woody debris characteristics in a mixed severity fire regime using prognosisBC and the fire and fuels extension. 2005. Hawkes, B.C.; Taylor, S.W.; Stockdale, C.; Shore, T.L.; Beukema, S.J.; Robinson, D. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-22. 17 p.

Social Dimensions of Community Vulnerability to Mountain Pine Beetle. 2005. MacKendrick, N.A.; Parkins, J.R. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2005-26. 79 p.

The burning question: Mountain pine beetle and fire in our forests (DVD version) 2006. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC.

Historic Influence of the Mountain Pine Beetle on Stand Dynamics in Canada's Rocky Mountain Parks. 2006. Dykstra, P.R.; Braumandl, T. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-15. 75 p.

Integrating Silvicultural Control of Mountain Pine Beetle with Wildlife and Sustainable Forest Management Objectives. 2007. Chan-McLeod, A.C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2007-05. 34 p.

Stand-level effects of the mountain pine beetle outbreak in the central British Columbia interior. 2007. Hawkins, C.; Rakochy, P. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2007-06. 14 p.

Modeling natural regeneration following mountain pine beetle attacks in the southern and central interior of British Columbia. 2007. LeMay, V.M.; Lee, T.; Sattler, D.; Marshall, P.; Robinson, D.; Zumrawi, A.A. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2007-16. 51 p.

Public Perceptions of Mountain Pine Beetle Management Alternatives. 2008. Meitner, M.; Berheide, Daniel; Nelson, John; Sheppard, S. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-06. 66 p.

Decision support framework for assessing alternative mountain pine beetle management strategies on sustainable forest management. 2008. Chan-McLeod, A.C.; Vernier, P.; Mitchell, S.J. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-18. 20 p.

Considering the effectiveness of mountain pine beetle mitigation strategies. 2008. Coops, N.C.; Timko, J.A.; Wulder, M.A.; White, J.C.; Ortlepp, S.M. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-21. 44 p.

Novel aerial photography as an aid to sampling secondary structure in pine stands. 2009. Teti, P. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-16. 24 p.

Assessment of post-beetle impacts on natural regeneration of lodgepole pine. 2009. Egger, K.N.; arocena, J.; Green, S.; Kennedy, N.; Massicotte, H.; Tackaberry, L.; Scholefield, S Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, B.C. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-07. 22 p.

Decision Support Tool for Managing Biodiversity and Ecosystem Resilience in Mountain Pine Beetle-Susceptible Landscapes. 2009. Chan-McLeod, A.C.; Vernier, P. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-23. 18 p.

Preliminary findings towards the use of lidar and digital aerial imagery as sampling tools to characterize volume killed by mountain pine beetle. 2010. Bater, C.W.; Wulder, M.A.; White, J.C.; Coops, N.C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2008-15. 9 p.

Abundance of secondary structure in lodgepole pine stands affected by the mountain pine beetle in the Cariboo-Chilcotin. 2009. Coates, K.D.; Glover, T.; Henderson, B. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-20. 37 p.

Framework to support impact analyses of renewal strategies of forestlands affected by mountain pine beetle. 2009. Krcmar, E.; Bizikova, L.; Chan-McLeod, A.C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-22. 41 p.

Historical frequency, intensity and extent of mountain pine beetle disturbance in British Columbia. 2010. Alfaro, R.I.; Campbell, E.; Hawkes, B.C. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Working Paper 2009-30. 52 p.