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Canadian Minerals Yearbook (CMY) - 2009
The author is with the Minerals and Metals Sector,
Natural Resources Canada
- Salt is critical to human and animal health. It (i.e., sodium chloride) is such a common part of our everyday lives that we rarely think of it as a natural resource that must be discovered, boiled/evaporated or mined, processed, and marketed before it is used for various end uses such as a food processing additive and flavour enhancer.
- Canada is a major producer of salt, ranking fifth in the world. Preliminary data indicate Canadian shipments of rock salt increased by 3% (or close to 0.4 Mt) to 14.6 Mt in 2009 valued at $664.1 million. Total salt exports were 5.9 Mt (valued at $154.3 million), of which 99.9% was exported to the United States.
- Sifto Canada Inc. (a subsidiary of Compass Minerals International Inc.), located in Goderich, Ontario, recently expanded it’s capacity from 7.25 million short tons (st) to 8.25 million st/y. A second phase, when completed, will add an additional 750 000 st/y by 2012.
- Spurred by growing demand from the Chinese chemical industry, global demand for salt is expected to grow at an average of 3%/y, reaching over 300 Mt by 2012.
Each human being contains about 113 g of salt. With insufficient quantities, our muscles would not contract, our blood would not circulate, our food would not digest, and our hearts would not beat. The same is true for livestock; therefore, salt is critical to human and animal health.
Although dietary intake can vary for people from various countries, an adult’s average total salt intake should be no more than 6 g per day and a child’s no more than 4 g. The average person’s diet incorporates at least 9 g per day. Dietary sodium is measured in milligrams (mg). The most common form of sodium used is table salt, which is 40% sodium. One teaspoon of table salt contains 2300 mg of sodium.
The salt markets in developed regions such as North America and Western Europe are both stable and mature. The main consuming regions are North America, Asia and the Middle East, and Western Europe. World salt consumption is on the rise, mainly in response to increasing demand in Southeast Asia and other developing nations. China is the world’s leading producer of synthetic soda ash (source: U.S. Geological Survey [USGS] 2006 salt review); it uses large quantities of salt as feedstock, and many of China’s salt operations have not been able to keep up with the strong demand created by the rise in soda ash production. Soda ash’s principal market is in glassmaking. China’s glass and soda ash sectors are anticipated to post better-than-expected performance (Source: Industrial Minerals (IM) magazine, January 2010 review).
Canada, like many countries, extracts, processes, consumes, exports, and imports salt. It has a vast territory with many known deposits and significant geological potential for new discoveries. Known salt areas are currently exploited by a small number of companies that are large players in the industry. Most of the salt is used for de-icing, chemical production, and domestic (e.g., table, food-grade, livestock feed) consumption.
Major Canadian salt deposits are found in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. Since similar geological conditions are necessary, many salt deposits have been discovered while exploring for oil and gas and potash. The largest deposits are in western Canada, followed by Ontario and the Atlantic provinces. In western Canada, the salt beds extend from the Northwest Territories down through Alberta, Saskatchewan, and into Manitoba. This immense deposit, averaging 122 m (400 ft) in thickness and covering an area of approximately 390 000 km2 (150 000 square miles), contains more than one million billion tonnes of salt.
In Ontario, salt is found along the shores of lakes Huron and Erie. This deposit is part of the known Michigan Basin and is a saucer-shaped formation underlying part of Michigan, part of Ohio, and lakes Huron and Erie.
In Prince Edward Island, a rock salt deposit of undetermined size was encountered at a depth of over 4200 m under Hillsborough Bay on the southern side of the island. Brine springs, usually indicative of a salt deposit, have been found in Newfoundland and Labrador and in British Columbia. Production in most provinces is by two main methods of extraction: underground room-and-pillar mining and brining. Recovery as a co-product of potash mining is also practised.
In the Atlantic provinces, large, thick deposits have been found underlying New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, part of Newfoundland and Labrador, and even the Gulf of St. Lawrence. These deposits occurred in various geologic eras and all of them are the remains of ancient inland seas. The shorelines of these ancient seas, which outline the edges of the salt beds, often indicate the presence of oil, gas, and coal deposits.
Major salt deposits and dry salt production in North America can be viewed on the Internet at www.saltinstitute.org/content/download/561/3308.
Environmentally, the continued use of road salt in Canada is an issue. In April 2004, Environment Canada issued a Code of Practice for the Environmental Management of Road Salts. The Code applies to any organization that uses more than 500 t/y of road salts and to organizations that have vulnerable areas in their territory.
PRODUCTION AND TRADE
Salt is a widespread, low-value, bulk commodity. It is relatively easy to extract, and transportation represents a significant proportion of the total delivered price. Many global markets are served by neighbouring salt-producing countries; therefore, long-distance trade is limited (Table 1). Nevertheless, even though both Canada and the United States produce salt, some regions on both sides of the border still rely, for economic reasons and convenience of supply, on large quantities of imports.
In 2008, total estimated world production of salt (source: USGS) remained relatively stable at 258 Mt, compared to 257 Mt in 2007.
Canada (source: USGS 2008 salt review) remained the fifth largest producer of salt (Table 3) in 2008. Preliminary 2009 data indicate that Canadian salt shipments totaled 14.6 Mt (valued at $664.1 million), a 0.341-Mt increase from the 14.2 Mt shipped in 2008. This 2009 value reflects the cyclical production level from year to year in response to winter conditions since 1988 (Table 2).
Preliminary 2009 data (Table 1) also indicate that Canada exported a total of 5.9 Mt (valued at $154.3 million), of which 99.9% was exported to the United States (valued at $158.7 million). With exports of almost 4.8 Mt to the United States in 2008, Canada was that country’s leading source of salt imports, accounting for about 34% of its total imports (source: USGS, 2008 salt review).
Canada also imports salt. Preliminary data (Table 1) show that Canada imported 2.4 Mt in 2009 (valued at $88.0million), mostly from the United States (66.5%) and Mexico (17.4%).
Of the millions of tonnes of dry salt produced annually in North America, a very small percentage finds its way to the dining table either in commercially processed foods, in home preparation, or in the salt shaker. Globally, the largest markets for salt are for use as brine and dry salt in the chemical industry. Directly or indirectly, salt plays a part in the manufacture of a seemingly endless list of chemicals and chemical products. There are four main end uses for salt: chlorine and caustic soda manufacture in the chlor-alkali industry (38.5%), the manufacture of synthetic soda ash (20%), edible salt for human consumption (17.5%), and de-icing salt (14%); the remaining 10% is used in animal feed and water treatment. End-use patterns vary from a predominance of chemical applications in highly industrialized countries to a market dominated by the use of salt in food and agriculture in less developed countries (Source: Roskill, 12th Edition, 2007).
Consumption patterns differ in North America. On a per-capita basis, Canada is the largest consumer of salt in the world, and this is due mainly to its winter conditions. Canada’s per-capita consumption of salt has been estimated at over 360 kg per person. Most of the salt is used as a de-icing agent in Ontario, Quebec, and Atlantic Canada. Roughly 90-95% of Canada’s apparent domestic consumption (source: Canadian Salt Institute) is for chemical and de-icing purposes. The remainder is used for water conditioning, food processing, fisheries, and other industrial uses.
Salt consumption details provided by the USGS may well reflect North American consumption patterns. In 2008, the U.S. distribution of salt (source: USGS) by major end use was for ice control (43%), chemicals (35%), distributors (grocery, other wholesalers and retailers) (8%), general industrial (3%), agricultural (3%), food processing (3%), primary water treatment (2%), and other uses (3%).
The U.S. Salt Institute’s web site provides an explanation of the many uses of salt. It can be found at www.saltinstitute.org/Uses-benefits.
The industrial chemicals industry uses salt in the manufacture of chlor-alkali such as caustic soda (sodium hydroxide), chlorine, and sodium chlorate. Salt for caustic soda and chlorine plants (i.e., facilities) in Canada is obtained from on-site brining and natural brines. Other plants use mined rock salt or imported solar or evaporated salt. The chlor-alkali industry is by far the largest segment of the chemical sector that uses salt. Other industrial chemical production that requires significant amounts of salt includes sodium bicarbonate, sodium chlorite, sodium hypochlorite, sodium carbonate (soda ash), and calcium chloride. For example, salt goes into the production of chlorine and into the manufacture of soda ash; in turn, these two products are used in the processing or manufacture of a wide variety of end products ranging from rayon, polyester, and other synthetics to plastics for explosives, fertilizers, glass, and cosmetics. Salt consumption for chemical uses, particularly chlor-alkali manufacture, can fluctuate depending on the demand for chlorine and co-product sodium hydroxide.
Recent factors affecting the demand for chlorine and sodium chloride include reduced demand from the pulp and paper sector and growing sensitivities with respect to its use as a de-icer.
Most pulp and paper mills in Canada have carried out extensive process modifications and improvements in effluent treatment. Several have opted to reduce chlorine usage by installing other bleaching processes such as extended lignification, oxygen delignification, sodium chlorate bleaching, integrated chlorine dioxide with hydrochloric acid recycling, and ozone and hydrogen peroxide bleaching processes.
Sodium chloride, or salt, remains the primary highway de-icing agent. Different de-icers are used in accordance with site requirements. Calcium chloride is the second most used de-icer, being effective at temperatures ranging between -10° and -20°C; this chemical is usually mixed with salt at a 2-4% rate. Growing concerns over the environment and the corrosion of infrastructure, such as bridge decks and parking lots, have led to numerous experiments with de-icing salt substitutes.
Demand for Canadian brine production has been affected by the move away from the chlorinated bleaching process and, more recently, by the impact of the economic downturn on product demand related to processed salt (i.e., brine) as an ingredient; this is seen in the downward trend (Table 2, Figure 1) from the early 2000s to the present.
CANADIAN SALT PRODUCERS
In 2008 (source: USGS and Table 3), the top eight salt-producing nations collectively accounted for 69.8% of total world salt output of 258.0 Mt. In descending order of quantity produced (Mt), they were: China (59.5), the United States (47.3), Germany (16.4), India (16.0), Canada (14.2), Australia (11.0), Mexico (8.8), and Brazil (6.9). China was the largest salt-producing nation, representing about 23.1% of total world output. Canada’s share was 5.5% of total world production.
Preliminary 2009 Canadian data (Table 2, Figure 1) indicate salt production by the following methods: 93.0% was mined rock, 6.0% was fine vacuum, and 1.0% was brine and salt recovered in chemical operations. Production came from major rock salt mines in Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick, and from vacuum pan refineries in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Over three quarters of this production was rock salt used primarily for highway de-icing.
A review of the data for the past 20 years (Figure 1, Table 2) reveals a number of interesting trends. Salt shipments, for example, have generally risen over the period 1988-2009. The figure also shows a similar trend for rock salt, which rose from 7.1 Mt to over 13.6 Mt. Vacuum shipments have been relatively constant over the whole period (at around 0.8-0.9 Mt), while brine shipments have fallen significantly (from 2.8 Mt to a low of 0.1 Mt). Since 1990, exports have grown from around 3 Mt to 5.9 Mt. During the same period, imports have ranged from 1.2 to 2.4 Mt.
Two major methods are used to obtain salt from Canada’s deposits: underground room-and-pillar mining and brining. Recovery as a co-product of potash mining is also practised. The most important Canadian producers are described below and in Table 4.
In Nova Scotia, The Canadian Salt Company Limited operates an underground rock salt mine at Pugwash in Cumberland County. Most of the salt from this mine is used for snow and ice control. The company also operates an evaporated salt plant where saturated brine is fed into a quadruple-effect vacuum pan; the brine solution is evaporated to produce high-quality salt crystals for use in the chemical and food industries.
Sifto Canada Inc. (a subsidiary of Compass Minerals Group Inc.) has a brining operation at Amherst, Nova Scotia. Its vapour re-compression process produces salt of the highest purity in North America. Sifto’s evaporated salt products are sold for table salt, fisheries, and water conditioning. This operation is one of the newest and most modern evaporation plants on the continent.
In New Brunswick, Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan Inc. (New Brunswick Division) produces potash and salt at its underground mine near Sussex. The company extracts salt and sells it mainly to the United States and eastern Canada. It also pumps brine back to the surface for re-use. This brine is produced from the clay slimes, and excess brine slurries from the processing plant are piped underground as backfill where rock salt has been extracted.
In Quebec, Seleine Mines Division (a subsidiary of The Canadian Salt Company Limited, owned by Rohm and Haas Company of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) is the only operating salt producer. Located on the Magdalen Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, it produces de-icing salt for markets in Quebec and the eastern United States.
Junex Inc., an oil and gas exploration company, discovered a natural brine zone while drilling for gas in Bécancour. In 2001, Junex created Junex Solnat, which operates two natural brine well operations. Its natural brine is sold as a dust control agent for dirt roads (i.e., suppressor) and for ice removal products.
In Ontario, Sifto Canada Inc. operates an underground rock salt mine in Goderich Harbour on the shores of Lake Huron. It also operates an evaporating plant for brine production on the escarpment of the Maitland River. The products serve the home water softeners, packaged icemelts, agricultural salts, food processing, table salts, and industrial salts markets. Compass Minerals International Inc. of Overland Park, Kansas, announced a two-phased plan to increase its rock salt production capacity in Goderich. In 2007, Compass announced details of a two-phase expansion that would increase capacity to 8.25 Mt/y by 2010. Phase I was completed in 2009, raising the mine’s capacity to 7.25 Mt/y. Phase II includes upgraded underground material-handling equipment, improved above-ground storage and loading capabilities, and increased hoisting capacity. It is expected to cost about $70 million with most of the expenditures occurring in 2009 and 2010. The first million tonnes of annual capacity created by Phase II is expected to be available in 2010. A further 750 000 t/y is scheduled to be added in 2012, creating an annual rock salt production capacity of 9 Mt for winter highway use.
More commonly recognized under the leading consumer brand name of “Windsor,” The Canadian Salt Company Limited is headquartered in Pointe-Claire, Quebec. It produces both rock salt from the Ojibway underground mine and vacuum salt from brine wells near Windsor. Salt products include road de-icing salt and water softening, agricultural, and chemical fine salt.
In Saskatchewan, Sifto Canada Inc. operates a brining operation near Unity for the production of fine vacuum pan salt, which is used for water softening, for agriculture, in food processing, and for the production of some de-icing salt for local use.
The Canadian Salt Company Limited at Belle Plaine produces evaporated salt from by-product brines sourced from an adjacent potash solution mine operated by The Mosaic Company (an amalgamation of IMC Global Inc. and Cargill Crop Nutrition). Most of the production goes towards water softening; other uses are for agriculture, food processing, and ice control.
NSC Minerals Inc. is a leading supplier of industrial mineral products specializing in salt mineral crystals. It produces coarse and fine salt products from potash tailings. The head office for NSC Minerals Inc. is located in Saskatoon. It has two modern operating plants with a total daily production capacity in excess of 6000 t located in Rocanville and Vanscoy, Saskatchewan. The Rocanville plant is located in southeastern Saskatchewan near the Manitoba border and the Vanscoy plant is located in central Saskatchewan approximately 20 miles southwest of Saskatoon. Products are used for a variety of applications such as highway de-icing, livestock feed supplements, hide curing, drilling muds, water softening, road stabilization, and industrial applications.
In Alberta, The Canadian Salt Company Limited at Lindberg produces fine vacuum pan salt that is also used for water softening, agriculture, and food processing; the company also produces some de-icing salt for local use.
Other companies known to produce salt (mainly brine) are as follows:
- In Saskatchewan, Mosaic Potash Esterhazy Limited Partnership (formerly IMC Esterhazy Canada Limited Partnership) supplies by-product rock salt from its potash operation at Esterhazy to Kayway Salt, which distributes it locally for road de-icing. Saskatoon Chemicals (“SaskChem,” a division of Sterling Chemicals Holdings, Inc.) produces brines from wells near Saskatoon for the manufacture of caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorate to be used internally for its pulp chemicals operations.
- In Alberta, Dow Chemical Canada Inc. at Fort Saskatchewan near Edmonton extracts salt brines for the manufacture of chlor-alkali. Nexen Inc. (formerly Canadian Occidental Petroleum Ltd. [Canadian Oxy Ltd.]) and Albchem Industries Ltd. operate solution mines near Bruderheim. They produce sodium chlorate using feed from the large and very pure Upper Lotsberg salt deposit. Their product is mostly used for pulp bleaching in the prairie provinces and western Canada. Ward Chemical Inc. produces calcium chloride from its natural source brine at Calling Lake.
METHODS OF RECOVERY AND APPLICATIONS
Information on methods of recovery and salt applications is available in previous editions of this salt review, available on the Internet at www.nrcan-rncan.gc.ca/mms-smm/busi-indu/cmy-amc/com-eng.htm.
Salt has unique production, processing, and packaging factors that determine its selling price. The price of salt depends on the type of salt, location, product form, and type of sale. Generally, salt sold in bulk is less expensive than salt that has been packaged, pelletized, or pressed into blocks. Salt in brine is the least expensive salt form because mining and processing costs are minimal. Vacuum pan salt is the most expensive because of the higher energy costs involved in processing and the high purity of the product.
As no specific prices for salt are available in Canada, examples from other jurisdictions will be used as a reference point. The February 2009 edition of Industrial Minerals (IM) magazine reported that salt prices (ground rock salt, 15-20 short ton lots, average price delivered U.K.) were in the range of £20-£30 (converted: C$35.39-$53.05). A further price breakdown comparison for North America can be found in Table 8 of the USGS’s salt review, available on the Internet at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/salt/myb1-2008-salt.pdf.
In December 2009, North American Salt Co. and Sifto Canada Corp., both subsidiaries of Compass Minerals, announced a price increase across their range of salt products as the region was preparing for its first significant snowfalls of the year. Compass Minerals is the leading producer in North America and largest provider of de-icing salt in North America and the United Kingdom. On January 4, 2010, prices increased by an average $6/t on all consumer and industrial packaged and bulk mineral products, including consumer and professional de-icing products, agricultural minerals, salt-based water conditioning products, industrial minerals, pool salt, and food-grade salt (Source: IM).
Salt, also known as sodium chloride, comprises two elements: sodium and chlorine. Sodium is a silver-coloured metal that is so unstable it reacts violently in the presence of water, and chlorine is a greenish-coloured gas that is dangerous and may be lethal, yet combined, these two elements form sodium chloride, which is a white-coloured compound essential to life itself (Source: USGS 2008 salt review).
There are four primary de-icing salts, each with specific characteristics. Rock salt, or sodium chloride, is widely available and is most effective between -6 and -8°C. However, it releases the highest amount of chloride ions when it dissolves, which can cause corrosion of metals and pollution in rivers. Calcium chloride is also commonly used in de-icer salt, and continues to be effective in temperatures below -17°C. Although it is more effective than rock salt in colder temperatures, it may cause skin irritation and chemically attack concrete. Potassium chloride can melt ice when the air temperature is down to -9.4°C, but can work at lower temperatures when combined with other chemicals. It does not irritate the skin or harm vegetation. The other main de-icing salt is magnesium chloride, which can melt ice in temperatures down to -25°C. Magnesium chloride releases around 40% less chlorides into the environment than rock salt and calcium chloride, and is less harmful to vegetation (Source: IM, September 2009).
The effects of salt-spreading on the environment depend on a variety of factors such as weather conditions, road characteristics, traffic loads, winter maintenance methods, and local topography. Environmental effects may include adverse impacts on plant growth and crop productivity in the immediate vicinity of highways, as well as higher salinity levels in streams and groundwater systems. Because of its low price, de-icing salt is the favoured de-icing agent.
Although the benefits of de-icing agents were recognized by the Environment Minister’s Expert Advisory Panel on the Second Priority Substances List, the Panel recommended that they be assessed for potential impact on the environment but that “any measures developed as a result of the assessment must never compromise human safety.” The overall conclusion of Environment Canada’s Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA 1999) report entitled Priority Substances List Assessment Report – Road Salts is as follows: “Based on the available data . . . road salts that contain inorganic chloride salts with or without ferrocyanide salts be considered ‘CEPA toxic’ . . . as defined under paragraphs 64(a) and (b) of CEPA 1999.”
In April 2004, Environment Canada issued a Code of Practice for the Environmental Management of Road Salts. The Code applies to any organization that uses more than 500 t of road salts per year and to organizations that have vulnerable areas in their territory. These organizations are obliged to prepare and implement a salt management plan that contains best management practices to protect the environment from the negative impacts of road salts. Environment Canada will review the effectiveness of the Code after five years (a Progress Report on the effectiveness of the Code of Practice is due in 2010) and will determine if other steps or programs are needed to further prevent or reduce the negative impacts of road salts on the environment.
Globally, rock salt consumption is driven mainly by freezing weather conditions, although other salt by-products (e.g., brine) do not have a significant impact on the salt production industry, even during harsh economic times.
The principal driver behind the increased production has been growing demand from the Chinese chemical industry and, to a lesser extent, from population growth. Over the coming four to five years, global demand is expected to grow at an average of 3%/y to reach over 300 Mt in 2012 (Source: Roskill, 2007).
In common with many other parts of the chemical mineral sector, rationalization and restructuring of the salt industry will likely continue. If the Chinese industry is considered as one enterprise, nine companies control roughly one third of the world’s salt production capacity. The four leading salt-producing companies are: China National Salt Industry Corp. (18.7 Mt/y), K+S Group (16.6 Mt/y), Cargill Group Nutrition (14.0 Mt/y), and Compass Minerals Group Inc. (13.7 Mt/y).
The chlor-alkali industry is a significant consumer of salt. It uses salt in an electrolyzing solution to produce chlorine and caustic soda. During the period 2000-2006, chlorine production in China increased by roughly 7 Mt/y. A further 9 Mt/y is forecast to come on stream globally by 2012, of which 8.1 Mt/y is expected to be produced in China, stimulating strong demand for the use of salt.
The consumption of dietary salt will likely grow in line with world and regional populations. The largest increases are expected in Asia and Africa where the largest growth in food consumption is projected.
1 Source: Roskill’s web site (www.roskill.com), report on salt.
Notes: (1) For definitions and valuation of mineral production, shipments and trade, please refer to the chapter entitled “Definitions and Valuation: Mineral Production, Shipments, and Trade.” (2) Information in this review was current as of April 8, 2010. (3) This and other reviews, including previous editions, are available on the Internet at www.nrcan-rncan.gc.ca/mms-smm/busi-indu/cmy-amc/com-eng.htm.
Note to Readers
The intent of this document is to provide general information and to elicit discussion. It is not intended as a reference, guide or suggestion to be used in trading, investment, or other commercial activities. The author and Natural Resources Canada make no warranty of any kind with respect to the content and accept no liability, either incidental, consequential, financial or otherwise, arising from the use of this document.
Canadian Salt Statistics and Trends, 1988-2009
Source: Natural Resources Canada.
|Item No.||Description||Canada||United States||EU||Japan|
|MFN||GPT||USA||Canada||Conventional Rate (1)||WTO (2)|
|2501.00||Salt (including table salt and denatured salt) and pure sodium chloride, whether or not in aqueous solution or containing added anti-caking or free-flowing agents; sea water||Free-2.5%||Free||Free||Free||Free-£2.6/1000 kg||. .|
Sources: Canadian Customs Tariff, effective January 2010, Canada Border Services Agency; Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, 2010; Official Journal of the European Union (Tariff Information), October 31, 2009 edition; Customs Tariff Schedules of Japan, 2010.
GPT General Preferential Tariff; MFN Most Favoured Nation; WTO World Trade Organization.
. . Not available.
(1) The customs duties applicable to imported goods originating in countries that are Contracting Parties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade or with which the European Community has concluded agreements containing the most-favoured-nation tariff clause shall be the conventional duties shown in column 3 of the Schedule of Duties. (2) WTO rate is shown; lower tariff rates may apply circumstantially.
|Fine vacuum salt||889 503||108 013||902 404||112 524||869 748||102 422|
|Mined rock salt||10 807 936||328 483||13 154 234||419 957||13 550 959||557 320|
|Salt content of brines used or shipped||272 205||6 349||167 796||4 792||144 951||4 351|
|Total||11 969 644||442 845||14 224 434||537 273||14 565 658||664 093|
|Ontario||7 652 398||259 215||9 514 751||324 106||9 870 029||332 584|
|Saskatchewan||1 162 165||53 266||1 320 836||61 134||1 262 799||54 941|
|Alberta||281 409||17 024||168 567||15 218||145 407||17 623|
|Total||11 969 644||442 845||14 224 434||537 273||14 565 658||664 093|
|2501.00||Salt and pure sodium chloride whether or not in aqueous solution or containing added anti-caking or free-flowing agents; sea water|
|United States||4 358 208||87 390||4 761 033||120 708||5 908 336||153 728|
|Saint Pierre and Miquelon||297||34||413||54||2 445||168|
|Costa Rica||447||104||21 757||152||650||76|
|Trinidad and Tobago||1||. . .||–||–||437||50|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||123||25||49||10||224||23|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||. .||. . .||–||–||171||12|
|Total exports||4 361 185||87 927||4 785 011||121 206||5 914 692||154 295|
|2501.00||Salt and pure sodium chloride whether or not in aqueous solution or containing added anti-caking or free-flowing agents; sea water|
|United States||739 217||38 633||1 133 641||43 372||1 600 002||54 441|
|Chile||35 914||7 095||146 363||8 768||256 370||15 908|
|Mexico||350 209||6 608||414 875||9 938||418 277||9 326|
|France||12 124||2 968||36 026||3 587||66 716||3 077|
|China||1 868||326||1 436||404||3 339||994|
|Greece||1 138||341||548||503||6 309||566|
|Italy||1 458||426||1 900||362||30 646||519|
|Israel||1 336||231||1 699||295||1 444||400|
|South Korea||1 200||201||1 722||243||5 583||284|
|Other countries||79 124||4 273||108 732||3 669||8 535||602|
|Total imports||1 225 439||62 234||1 859 658||73 894||2 404 666||87 961|
|By province of clearance|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||23 370||828||35 664||1 327||40||12|
|Prince Edward Island||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Nova Scotia||16||1||11 461||214||. .||. . .|
|Quebec||70 033||7 819||210 103||11 573||256 908||15,488|
|Ontario||698 623||32 761||992 840||39 227||1 443 222||50 036|
|Manitoba||3 428||653||1 971||581||6 957||1 195|
|Saskatchewan||3 290||440||1 081||434||1 016||454|
|Alberta||6 552||1 092||51 351||885||56 106||1 206|
|British Columbia||419 937||18 580||554 992||19 557||640 268||19 504|
|Yukon||–||–||–||–||. .||. . .|
|Nunavut||–||–||–||–||. .||. . .|
|Total||1 225 439||62 234||1 859 658||73 894||2 404 666||87 961|
Sources: Natural Resources Canada; Statistics Canada.
– Nil; . . Not available; . . . Amount too small to be expressed; (p) Preliminary; x Confidential.
(1) Includes table salt, pure sodium chloride, and seawater salt.
Note: Numbers may not add to totals due to rounding.
|Fine Vacuum|| In Brine and Recovered
in Chemical Operations
|1988||7 126 762||783 368||2 777 050||10 687 180||1 202 220||3 030 124|
|1989||7 548 732||821 284||2 788 395||11 158 411||2 360 433||2 137 321|
|1990||7 704 499||778 428||2 708 458||11 191 385||2 095 324||1 897 816|
|1991||8 615 755||799 563||2 455 541||11 870 859||1 202 879||2 783 021|
|1992||7 912 989||770 370||2 404 667||11 088 026||1 041 424||2 650 921|
|1993||8 073 435||817 859||2 101 711||10 993 005||1 051 029||3 079 298|
|1994||9 446 002||822 181||1 975 704||12 243 887||940 130||3 638 674|
|1995||8 077 661||850 676||2 029 047||10 957 384||1 294 994||2 986 802|
|1996||9 499 189||853 858||1 895 430||12 248 477||1 137 603||3 816 788|
|1997||10 923 966||863 112||1 709 778||13 496 856||1 262 836||3 634 009|
|1998||10 517 641||834 944||1 681 710||13 034 295||977 943||4 177 880|
|1999||10 004 167||823 983||1 857 745||12 685 895||1 375 143||3 808 093|
|2000||9 458 260||827 630||1 878 179||12 164 069||1 141 063||3 475 755|
|2001||11 528 499||844 719||1 351 761||13 724 979||1 644 424||4 616 739|
|2002||10 581 246||870 370||1 284 861||12 736 477||1 375 136||3 689 799|
|2003||11 739 364||905 096||1 073 362||13 717 822||969 125||4 196 741|
|2004||12 000 704||923 924||1 171 660||14 096 288||2 148 674||4 247 344|
|2005||11 404 899||925 437||1 132 689||13 463 025||1 295 008||3 984 162|
|2006||12 453 922||888 073||1 117 815||14 459 810||1 641 063||4 124 906|
|2007||10 807 936||889 503||272 205||11 969 644||1 225 439||4 361 185|
|2008 (r)||13 154 234||902 404||167 796||14 224 434||1 859 658||4 785 011|
|2009 (p)||13 550 959||869 748||144 951||14 565 658||2 404 666||5 914 692|
Sources: Natural Resources Canada; Statistics Canada.
(p) Preliminary; (r) Revised.
|1999||2000||2001||2002||2003||2004||2005||2006||2007 (r)||2008 (p)|
|China||28 124||31 280||34 105||36 024||32 424||37 101||46 610||56 630||59 760||59 520|
|United States (1)||45 000||45 600||44 800||40 300||43 700||46 500||45 200||44 400||44 600||47 300|
|Germany||15 700||15 700||14 343||15 736||16 424||18 838||19 332||19 846||15 678||16 400|
|India||14 453||14 453||14 503||14 503||15 003||15 003||15 003||15 500||16 000||16 000|
|Canada (2)||12 686||12 164||13 725||12 736||13 718||14 096||13 463||14 460||11 970||14 224|
|Australia||9 888||8 778||9 536||9 961||10 256||11 088||12 444||11 424||10 855||11 000|
|Mexico||8 236||8 884||8 501||7 802||7 547||8 566||9 508||8 371||8 400||8 809|
|Brazil||5 958||6 074||5 578||6 109||6 564||6 648||7 079||6 746||6 925||6 900|
|Chile||6 074||5 083||5 989||3 503||6 213||4 939||6 068||4 580||4 404||6 431|
|France||7 000||7 000||7 000||6 400||6 673||6 910||6 730||8 718||6 140||6 100|
|United Kingdom||5 800||5 800||5 800||5 700||5 900||5 800||5 800||5 800||5 800||5 800|
|Ukraine||2 185||2 287||2 300||2 350||3 863||4 393||4 811||5 996||5 548||5 500|
|Netherlands||5 000||5 000||5 000||5 000||5 000||5 000||5 000||5 000||5 000||5 000|
|Spain||3 200||3 200||3 200||3 894||3 963||3 993||4 550||4 550||4 550||4 550|
|Poland||1 623||1 576||1 484||3 558||4 660||5 142||4 190||4 955||4 391||4 390|
|Other countries (r)||64 626||68 121||70 136||27 938||28 227||27 795||30 235||28 829||42 267||40 076|
|Total (3)||207 000||209 000||214 000||214 000||225 000||236 000||250 000||262 000||257 000||258 000|
Sources: Natural Resources Canada; U.S. Geological Survey.
(p) Preliminary; (r) Revised.
(1) Excludes Puerto Rico. (2) The U.S. Geological Survey is the source for all data, excluding data for Canada, for which the source is Natural Resources Canada.
(3) Totals only were revised.
Note: Numbers may not add to totals due to rounding.
|ERCO Worldwide||Hargrave Facility, Man./2002||23 075||Brining to produce sodium chlorate|
|Canexus Limited||Bruderheim, Alta./1991||2 869||Brining to produce sodium chlorate (salt brine)|
|Canadian Salt Company Limited, The||Pugwash, N.S./1959||1 879 800||Rock salt|
|Pugwash, N.S./1963||1 879 800||Brine made from mined rock salt used to produce fine evaporated salt (rock salt)|
|Mine Seleine, Iles-de-la-Madeleine, Que./1982||1 752 000||Rock salt|
|Ojibway, Ont./1955||2 803 500||Salt graded and prepared for markets (rock salt)|
|Windsor, Ont./1892||238 500||Evaporated salt|
|Belle Plaine, Sask./1969||227 238||Plant uses sodium chloride brines produced at the nearby potash solution mine of IMC Kalium Canada Ltd. (evaporated salt)|
|Lindbergh, Alta./1968||116 000||Produces coarse and fine salt (evaporated salt)|
|Mosaic Potash Esterhazy||K1 and K2 mines, Esterhazy, Sask./1962||180||By-product rock salt from potash mine (standard, coarse, and granular grades)|
|Junex Inc.||Bécancour, Que.||. .||Natural brine for de-icing and dust control|
|NSC Minerals Inc.||Rocanville, Sask./1990||200||Produces coarse and fine products (rock salt)|
|Vanscoy, Sask./1988||300||Produces coarse and fine products (rock salt)|
|Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan Inc.||Sussex, N.B./1983||245 700||Three grades of muriate of potash (KCI) are produced from a flotation circuit and a crystallizer circuit (salt)|
| Sterling Pulp Chemicals
|Saskatoon, Sask./1979||45 630||Primarily a manufacturer of pulp and water treatment chemicals; brining to produce caustic soda, chlorine, and sodium chlorate|
|Sifto Canada Corp.||Amherst, N.S./1947||98 890||Brining for vacuum pan evaporation (evaporated salt)|
|Goderich, Ont./1959||6 860 000||Rock salt mining|
|Goderich, Ont./1872||142 350||Brining for vacuum pan evaporation (evaporated salt)|
|Unity, Sask./1949||150 274||Brining for vacuum pan evaporation (evaporated salt)|
|Rio Petro Ltd.||Airdrie, Alta.||. .||Salt content of brine|
|Ward Chemical Inc.||Edmonton, Alta.||438 000||Calcium chloride|
Source: Natural Resources Canada, company surveys.
. . Not available.