Canadian Reserves of Selected Major Metals and Recent Production Decisions

Arlene Drake

The author is a senior exploration analyst with the Minerals and Metals Sector,
Natural Resources Canada.
Telephone: 343-292-8604
E-mail: arlene.drake@canada.ca

RESERVES OF SELECTED MAJOR METALS

In the 30-year period from 1980 to 2010, Canada’s reserves of base metals declined continuously at annual average rates varying from 0.69% for molybdenum to 8.86% for lead. This period of prolonged decline resulted in some metal reserve levels of less than half of the known ore reserves reported at the end of 1980. Reserves in 2010 were 64% of 1980 reserves for copper, 37% for nickel, 46% for molybdenum, 15% for zinc, 4% for lead, and 20% for silver. Gold reserves saw an increase of 178% over that same period.

In general, metal prices continued to gain strength in 2010, despite a temporary slowdown in June, and peaked at record levels in December. Copper averaged US$3.42 per pound (/lb),1 nickel averaged US$9.90/lb, zinc averaged US$0.98/lb, and lead averaged US$0.97/lb. Gold prices remained high throughout the year, averaging US$1224.52 per ounce (/oz), while silver averaged US$20.16/oz. By year-end 2010, copper was selling for US$4.15/lb, lead for US$1.09/lb, zinc for US$1.03/lb, and nickel for US$10.94/lb. Gold and silver prices reached US$1390.54/oz and US$29.36/oz, respectively.

A number of mines that closed in 2009 re-opened in 2010, two new mines announced production decisions, and a significant number of old mines that have been closed for a number of years were rejuvenated with new mine plans.

On a yearly basis, copper, molybdenum, silver, and gold reserves increased from 2009 to 2010. The increase in copper reserves was due to significant contributions from new mines in British Columbia (Mt. Milligan, Copper Mountain, and New Afton) and additions at the Gibraltar and Highland Valley mines in British Columbia and at Xstrata’s Sudbury operations in Ontario. Molybdenum reserves increased at the Highland Valley and Gibraltar mines in British Columbia. Gold reserves increased due to four new mines: Canadian Malartic in Quebec, New Afton in British Columbia, Young-Davidson in Ontario, and Copper Mountain in British Columbia. Increases in gold reserves also occurred at established mines like the Red Lake and Macassa mines in Ontario and the Rice Lake mine in Manitoba. Increases in silver reserves were due to new openings of the Copper Mountain and New Afton mines in British Columbia and the Bracemac-MacLeod mine in Quebec, as well as to additions at other established operations such as Vale’s Ontario operations and the Highland Valley mine in British Columbia. In 2010, gold, copper, molybdenum, and silver reserves increased by 60%, 47%, 18%, and 11%, respectively.

Decreases were recorded in the reserves of lead (11%), nickel (7%), and zinc (3%). Although some reserves continued to decline in 2010, strong metal prices have enabled new mines to come on stream and established mines to expand reserves, and have also breathed new life into old mines, significantly increasing some metal reserve levels during the year.

Vale recorded significant decreases in nickel reserves at its Sudbury operations due to mine depletion and the reclassification of mineral reserves to resources at the Copper Cliff South mine and Stobie mine deposits. Table 1 illustrates the main components of change in Canadian reserves in 2010.

Despite strong metal prices, the uncertainty over European debt and the recovery of the U.S. economy meant 2010 was a year of guarded optimism. The uncertainty fueled the rise in the price of gold upon fears of a possible double-dip recession. Canadian companies continued to supply minerals for emerging countries, where continued expansion ensured robust demand for minerals and metals. Mining companies entered 2011 in strong financial and operational positions to take advantage of favourable prices and markets, but the potential for another market correction remains a concern.

Reserves Policy

Canadian reserves are estimated from information contained in annual and other corporate reports, and from the responses of mining companies to the annual federal-provincial/territorial Survey of Mines and Concentrators. Reserves reported here include only metal contained in material that is classified by companies as “proven reserves” or “probable reserves” at producing mines and in deposits that are firmly committed to production (Table 2). Metal contained in mineral resources classified by companies as “measured resources,” “indicated resources,” or “inferred resources” are not included in national reserve totals, nor is metal contained in deposits that have not advanced beyond the deposit appraisal phase (Figure 1). When available, only metal contained in mineable ore is included in Canadian totals in order to exclude losses inherent in the mining process. Every effort is made to achieve, from year to year, consistency in the reserves reported here; however, consistency ultimately depends on industry practice, which has evolved over the years. Imperial units reported by companies have been converted to metric units and the results have been rounded to the appropriate number of significant digits.

Reserves by Commodity

Gold

There was 1473 tonnes (t) of gold contained in Canadian mine reserves in December 2010. This represents an increase of 60% (555 t) compared to December 2009. The largest addition to gold reserves came from the new Canadian Malartic mine in Val-d’Or, Quebec, which added 278 t, followed by the soon-to-be-re-opened Young-Davidson mine in Matachewan, Ontario, the New Afton mine in British Columbia, and the recently opened Timmins mine in Ontario with 88 t, 33 t, and 27 t, respectively. In total, two new mines and five re-opened mines added to the gold reserves total in 2010. A 13-t decrease in gold reserves was recorded at the Black Fox mine near Timmins, Ontario. Since 2005, gold reserves have been on an increasing trend.

Silver

There was 6916 t of silver contained in Canadian mine reserves in December 2010. This represents an 11% increase (662 t) compared to December 2009. The Kidd Creek mine in Ontario, the LaRonde mine in Quebec, and the Brunswick No. 12 mine in New Brunswick saw decreases of 165 t, 137 t, and 116 t, respectively. Additions were made to silver reserves by Vale’s Ontario operations (631 t) and by three new mines: Copper Mountain in British Columbia, Bracemac-MacLeod in Quebec, and the New Afton mine in British Columbia, adding 264 t, 106 t, and 96 t, respectively. Silver grades have been estimated for a number of mines to ensure continuity of reporting national levels from year to year.

Zinc

During 2010, Canadian reserves of zinc declined by about 117 000 t (3%) to a year-end total of approximately 4.13 million tonnes (Mt). The greatest reduction in zinc reserves was recorded at the Kidd Creek mine in Timmins, Ontario. As the result of lower tonnage and grades, Kidd Creek’s reserves decreased by 134 000 t. Decreases were also recorded at the LaRonde mine in Quebec (98 000 t) and the Brunswick No. 12 mine in New Brunswick (78 000 t), which is nearing the end of its mine life. The only addition to zinc reserves (362 000 t) occurred at the new Bracemac-MacLeod mine in Mattagami, Quebec.

Lead

In 2010, Canadian reserves of lead decreased by approximately 11% to a year-end total of 400 000 t. The largest declines in lead reserves occurred at the Brunswick No. 12 mine (36 000 t), at the LaRonde mine (9000 t), and at the Kidd Creek mine (5000 t). There were no new or operating mines posting additions to lead reserves in 2010.

Copper

In December 2010, Canadian reserves of copper were estimated at around 10.7 Mt, an increase of 47% (3.5 Mt) compared to one year earlier. In British Columbia, additions to copper reserves occurred at the Gibraltar mine (1.08 Mt) and at three new mines: Mt. Milligan (1.06 Mt), Copper Mountain (757 000 t), and New Afton (450 000 t). Increases were also recorded by the Highland Valley mine in British Columbia, by Xstrata’s Sudbury operations in Ontario, at the new Bracemac-MacLeod mine in Quebec, and at the Minto mine in the Yukon. Decreases occurred at the Kidd Creek mine (48 000 t), at Vale’s Ontario operations (46 000 t), and at the Voisey’s Bay mine (38 000 t) in Newfoundland and Labrador. Since 2005, copper reserves have been on an increasing trend.

Molybdenum

Canadian reserves of molybdenum stood at 253 590 t in December 2010, an 18% increase from 2009. Reserves gains were recorded at the Highland Valley (26 000 t), Gibraltar (14 000 t), and Huckleberry (120 t) mines in British Columbia. Decreases were recorded at the Endako mine in British Columbia. Since 2005, molybdenum reserves have been on an increasing trend.

Nickel

In December 2010, there were some 3.1 Mt of nickel contained in Canadian mine reserves, a decrease of approximately 7% from 2009 levels. The largest decrease in nickel reserves occurred at Vale’s Ontario operations with reported nickel reserves of 56 000 t less than in 2009. Decreases were also recorded at Vale’s Voisey’s Bay mine (54 000 t) in Labrador and at the McCreedy West mine (32 000 t) in Ontario. Reserves were added from Xstrata’s Sudbury operations (44 000 t) in Ontario and from Vale’s Manitoba operations (10 000 t). There were also additions at the Bucko mine in Manitoba and the Lac des Iles mine in Ontario.

Nickel reserves in the Sudbury region decreased by 8%, or approximately 142 000 t, as the result of mine depletions and the reclassification of reserves to resources at suspended operations. In 2010 and early 2011, Vale and Xstrata intended to continue advancing new projects in the Sudbury region. The Fraser Morgan project that was delayed in 2009 is currently undergoing a new feasibility study, and Vale’s Totten development project is expected to begin production in 2012.

Vale had some 2.4 Mt of nickel in Canadian reserves at the end of 2010, or about 79% of the total.

Canadian Reserves by Province and Territory

The same four provinces (British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick) continued to hold dominant positions in terms of Canada’s proven and probable mineable reserves of major metals in December 2010 (Table 3).

British Columbia had 100% of the molybdenum, 64% of the copper, 16% of the silver, 8% of the lead, 7% of the zinc, and 6% of the gold.

Ontario had 52% of the nickel, 42% of the gold, 28% of the silver, 24% of the copper, 20% of the zinc, and 7% of the lead.

Quebec had 39% of the gold, 28% of the zinc, 17% of the silver, 11% of the nickel, 9% of the lead, and 2% of the copper.

New Brunswick had 60% of the lead, 15% of the zinc, and 10% of the silver.

The Yukon had 22% of the silver, 16% of the lead, 12% of the zinc, 2% of the copper, and 1% of the gold.

Manitoba had 17% of the nickel, 15% of the zinc, 6% of the silver, 4% of the gold, and 3% of the copper.

Newfoundland and Labrador had 20% of the nickel, 4% of the copper, 3% of the zinc, and 1% of the silver.

Nunavut had 7% of the gold.

Saskatchewan had 1% of the gold.

Canadian Reserves by Industry Classification

Canadian mines are, to a large extent, polymetallic, a complexity that the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) tends to oversimplify (Table 4).

In 2010, mine reserves of gold in Canada were distributed through the various NAICS classes as follows: Gold and Silver Ore Mining, 88%; Copper-Zinc Ore Mining, 8%; Nickel-Copper Ore Mining, 3%; and Lead-Zinc Ore Mining, 1%.

In 2010, mine reserves of silver in Canada were distributed through the various NAICS classes as follows: Copper-Zinc Ore Mining, 40%; Lead-Zinc Ore Mining, 31%; Gold and Silver Ore Mining, 15%; and Nickel-Copper Ore Mining, 14%.

Mine reserves of copper in Canada in 2010 were distributed through the various NAICS classes as follows: Copper-Zinc Ore Mining, 73%; Nickel-Copper Ore Mining, 25%; Gold and Silver Ore Mining, 1%; and Lead-Zinc Ore Mining, 1%.

Mine reserves of molybdenum in Canada were contained in the NAICS classes as follows: Molybdenum Mining, 51%; and Copper-Zinc Ore Mining, 49%.

Mine reserves of nickel in Canada were contained 100% in the NAICS class of Nickel-Copper Ore Mining.

Mine reserves of lead in Canada were contained in the NAICS classes as follows: Lead-Zinc Ore Mining, 76%; Copper-Zinc Ore Mining, 15%; and Gold and Silver Ore Mining, 9%.

Mine reserves of zinc in Canada were contained in the NAICS classes as follows: Copper-Zinc Ore Mining, 63%; Lead-Zinc Ore Mining, 27%; and Gold and Silver Ore Mining, 10%.

Apparent Life of Canadian Reserves

The apparent life (life index) of mine reserves is usually calculated by dividing the total amount of metals remaining in mine reserves at the end of a given year by the corresponding amount of metals contained in the ores produced during that year. Similar calculations are often applied at the national level.

At the national level, life indices are but a very rough measure of the expected life of aggregate mine reserves and they are often misleading unless abnormal situations are recognized. Life indices based on proven and probable reserves do not make allowances for inferred extensions to reserves at current mines; gross additions that will accrue to current reserves from the likely development, in the foreseeable future, of known orebodies for which a production decision has yet to be made; or expected changes in production rates. Furthermore, life indices tend to overstate the apparent life of reserves when, for example, annual production is abnormally low due to strikes, cutbacks, or suspensions at large establishments, or when significant increases in capacity resulting from new production decisions will be coming on stream, but only several years later.

The apparent life indices for the major metals in Canada at the end of 2010 were 17 years for nickel (lower production due to strikes and closed mines), 22 years for copper (due to large increases in reserves), 8 years for gold, 27 years for molybdenum (due to lower production), 5 years for zinc, 8 years for silver, and 4 years for lead.

Reserve Trends

Figure 2 and Table 5 show how Canadian reserves of copper, nickel, lead, zinc, molybdenum, and silver have declined since the early 1980s. In contrast, gold reserves increased substantially until 1988 before beginning to decline.

With continued robust demand and high metal prices, companies were spurred to develop new mines and embark on expansions at existing mines, resulting in a string of new mine openings in 2010 and expected increases in future capacity. This resulted in increases in reserve levels of copper, molybdenum, gold, and silver. Despite the opportunity created by the economic rebound, strong metal prices, and continued strong demand from Asia, reserves of nickel, zinc, and lead continued on a downward trend in 2010. Projects that were delayed in 2009 are going ahead and old mines were revisited and given new life, ready to resume production in 2011 and 2012 (Figure 2).

The annual aggregate change in Canadian reserves is the net result of three main factors affecting individual mines (Figure 3): additions to reserves, deletions to reserves, and production. Additions to reserves are the result of new discoveries; new geological, metallurgical, production, or other information; a decrease in production costs; or a rise in commodity prices, all of which increase the quantity of mineral resources that is profitable to mine. Deletions to reserves are the result of new geological, metallurgical, production, or other information; increases in costs; or decreases in commodity prices, all of which reduce the quantity of mineral resources previously counted in mine reserves that are now expected to be mined at a profit (Figure 3).

Resources Policy

This 2010 edition of Canadian Reserves of Selected Major Metals and Recent Production Decisions includes, for the first time, data on mineral resources at producing mines and mines committed to production. Where reserves represent the economically mineable portion of the mineral inventory at a mine, resources represent a less certain portion of a mine’s mineral inventory. Based on preliminary technical and economic analysis, there is some confidence that resources will be converted to economically mineable reserves.

Canadian resources are estimated from information contained in annual and other corporate reports. Resources reported here include only metal contained in material that is classified by companies as “measured resources” or “indicated resources” at producing mines and in deposits that are firmly committed to production (Table 2). Metal contained in mineral resources classified by companies as “inferred resources” is not included in national resource totals, nor is metal contained in deposits that have not advanced beyond the deposit appraisal phase (Figure 1). Mineral resources are an inventory of mineralization that has a reasonable prospect for economic extraction as calculated by the company. Resources are less certain than reserves and not all resources will be upgraded to reserves. Resources do not take into account dilution. As with reserves, every effort is made to achieve consistency in the resources reported here; however, consistency ultimately depends on industry reporting practices. Many companies report resources inclusive of reserves; therefore, it was necessary to recalculate resources by removing reserves. Imperial units reported by companies have been converted to metric units and the results have been rounded to the appropriate number of significant digits.

Resources by Commodity

Gold

There was 653 t of gold in measured and indicated resources at operating mines in Canada in 2010 (Table 6). Additions occurred at the Canadian Malartic mine in Quebec (70 t) and at the Black Fox mine (32 t) in Ontario. The largest reductions occurred at the Meadowbank mine (60 t) in Nunavut and at the Mt. Polley mine (49 t) (where resources were not available for 2010) in British Columbia. The Porcupine mine in Ontario saw resources decline by 31 t while reserves at the mine increased. Osisko’s Canadian Malartic mine is responsible for 26% of the additions to gold resources. Fifty-two percent (52%) of the additions occurred at new and re-opened mines.

Silver

There was 3224 t of silver in measured and indicated resources at operating mines in Canada in 2010. Additions occurred at the new Bellekeno mine (369 t) in the Yukon and at the new Bracemac-MacLeod mine (227 t) in Quebec. The largest reductions occurred at the Brunswick No. 12 mine in New Brunswick (107 t) and at the Kidd Creek mine in Ontario (107 t), where resources were upgraded to reserves at both mines. The new Bellekeno mine was responsible for 50% of the additions. Ninety percent (90%) of the additions occurred at new mines.

Zinc

During 2010, Canadian resources of zinc stood at 1.5 Mt. Additions occurred at the Bracemac-MacLeod mine (190 000 t) in Quebec, and the largest decreases occurred at the Brunswick No. 12 mine in New Brunswick (107 000 t) and the Perseverance mine in Quebec (63 000 t). Thirty-seven percent (37%) of the additions to zinc resources came from the Bracemac-MacLeod mine and 43% came from new mines.

Lead

In 2010, Canadian resources of lead stood at 200 000 t. Additions of 38 000 t were recorded at the new Bellekeno mine in the Yukon, and decreases of 37 000 t were recorded at the Brunswick No. 12 mine. Additions of 43% came from the new Bellekeno and Bracemac-MacLeod mines, with Bellekeno accounting for 37%. All other additions came from Kidd Creek.

Copper

In December 2010, Canadian resources of copper stood at 2.48 Mt. Additions occurred in British Columbia at three new mines: Copper Mountain (450 000 t), Mt. Milligan (364 000 t), and New Afton (246 000 t). The largest decrease (827 000 t) occurred at the Gibraltar mine in British Columbia followed by Xstrata’s Sudbury operations in Ontario (81 000 t). Both drops were explained by additions to reserves and decreases in resources for copper. Eighty-three percent (83%) of the additions came from new mines (Copper Mountain, New Afton, and Bracemac-MacLeod). Copper Mountain accounted for 35% of the additions to copper resources.

Molybdenum

Canadian resources of molybdenum stood at 40 000 t. A decrease occurred at the Endako mine (31 000 t) in British Columbia. Resources at the Gibraltar mine, also in British Columbia, decreased by 27 000 t as resources were also converted to reserves.

Nickel

In December 2010, there were some 385 000 t of nickel in resources. Additions occurred at the Shakespeare mine (7000 t) and at the new McWatters mine (6000 t), both in Ontario. Decreases occurred at the Levack/Morrison mine (108 000 t), also in Ontario. Sixty-one percent (61%) of the new nickel resources were added by the Shakespeare and McWatters mines. It should be noted that Vale does not publish resource numbers for its Canadian operations. Therefore, the national resource levels of nickel, copper, gold, silver, and platinum group metals will all be under-reported to some extent.

Canadian Resources by Province and Territory

Four provinces (British Columbia, the Yukon, Ontario, and Quebec) held dominant positions in terms of Canada’s measured and indicated resources of major metals in December 2010 (Table 7).

British Columbia contained 100% of the molybdenum, 64% of the copper, 8% of the zinc, 5% of the silver, 4% of the gold, and 4% of the lead.

The Yukon contained 65% of the silver, 54% of the lead, 39% of the zinc, 20% of the copper, and 4% of the gold.

Ontario contained 59% of the gold, 43% of the nickel, 19% of the zinc, 12% of the copper, 11% of the silver, and 6% of the lead.

Quebec contained 48% of the nickel, 26% of the gold, 22% of the zinc, 13% of the silver, 5% of the lead, and 3% of the copper.

New Brunswick contained 32% of the lead, 11% of the zinc, 6% of the silver, and less than 1% of the copper.

Manitoba contained 9% of the nickel and less than 1% of the gold.

Nunavut contained 7% of the gold.

Newfoundland and Labrador contained less than 1% of each of copper, zinc, silver, and gold.

Saskatchewan contained less than 1% of the gold.

Canadian Resources by Industry Classification

Canadian mines are, to a large extent, polymetallic, a complexity that the NAICS tends to oversimplify (Table 8).

In 2010, resources of gold in Canadian mines were distributed through the various NAICS classes as follows: Gold and Silver Ore Mining, 92%; Copper-Zinc Ore Mining, 6%; Lead-Zinc Ore Mining, 1%; Miscellaneous, 1%; and Nickel-Copper Ore Mining, less than 1%.

In 2010, resources of silver in Canadian mines were distributed through the various NAICS classes as follows: Lead-Zinc Ore Mining, 67%; Copper-Zinc Ore Mining, 27%; and Gold and Silver Ore Mining, 6%.

Resources of copper in Canadian mines in 2010 were distributed through the various NAICS classes as follows: Copper-Zinc Ore Mining, 88%; Nickel-Copper Ore Mining, 9%; Lead-Zinc Ore Mining, 3%; and Miscellaneous and Gold and Silver Ore Mining, both less than 1%.

Resources of molybdenum in Canadian mines were contained in the NAICS classes as follows: 70% in Copper-Zinc Ore Mining and 30% in Molybdenum Mining.

Resources of nickel in Canadian mines were contained 93% in the NAICS class of Nickel-Copper Ore Mining and 7% in the Miscellaneous category.

Resources of lead in Canadian mines were contained in the NAICS classes as follows: Lead-Zinc Ore Mining, 86%; Copper-Zinc Ore Mining, 10%; and Gold and Silver Ore Mining, 5%.

Resources of zinc in Canadian mines were contained in the NAICS classes as follows: Lead-Zinc Ore Mining, 50%; Copper-Zinc Ore Mining, 44%; and Gold and Silver Ore Mining, 6%.

Resource Trends

Figure 4 shows how Canadian resources of silver and gold have increased from 2008 to 2010. In contrast, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc resources have fluctuated and molybdenum resources have decreased.

Changes to resources are the result of three main factors affecting individual mines: additions to resources from new geological information, improved technology, and commodity prices. Resources may be upgraded to reserves, in which case reserves will increase and resources will decrease unless new material is added.

During 2010, silver resources increased by 19%, gold resources increased by 18%, and zinc and lead resources increased by 5% and 2%, respectively. Molybdenum resources declined by 67%, nickel resources decreased by 53%, and copper resources decreased by 40%.

During 2009, silver resources increased by 61%, copper resources increased by 29%, nickel resources increased by 21%, and gold resources increased by 16%. Molybdenum resources declined by 52%, lead resources decreased by 23%, and zinc resources decreased by 20%.

The large decline in copper from 2009 to 2010, and the smaller decline in nickel, may be due to projects that moved from development into production decisions, thereby upgrading resources into reserves for 2010. As well, several significant mines either did not report resources or had only inferred resources, which were not taken into account for this report, thereby significantly reducing resource levels in 2010.

If measured and indicated contained resources are added to reserves at producing mines and at mines committed to production, and if the same production levels are assumed, the total apparent life (life index) of these mineral resources could be used as an indicator of the underlying robustness of currently producing and soon-to-be-producing mines in Canada.

The apparent life indices of reserves including resources in 2010 would increase from 17 years to 19 years for nickel, from 22 years to 26 years for copper, from 8 years to 11 years for gold, from 27 years to 31 years for molybdenum, from 5 years to 7 years for zinc, from 8 years to 12 years for silver, and from 4 years to 6 years for lead.

RECENT PRODUCTION DECISIONS

Several criteria need to be met for a project to be considered to have reached the production decision stage for the purposes of this report. In general, there needs to have been a positive production feasibility study, all of the necessary permits must have been obtained, financing must have been arranged, and directors must have approved construction. Table 9 shows the production decisions that added to Canadian reserve totals in 2010.

In 2010, there were two new mines slated for near-term production: the underground Bracemac-MacLeod mine in Quebec and the open-pit Mt. Milligan copper-gold mine in British Columbia. There were five projects at historical mine sites that have been rejuvenated, including the Copper Mountain mine (formerly the Similco mine) and the New Afton underground mine at the old Afton open pit, both in British Columbia. Also in the rejuvenated category are the new Bellekeno open pits in the historical Bellekeno district of the Yukon, the large Canadian Malartic mine (at the old underground Malartic mine site) in Val-d’Or, Quebec, and the Young-Davidson gold mine in Ontario. Re-opened mines included the Sigma-Lamaque gold mine in Quebec, the Holt gold mine in Ontario, the Francoeur gold mine in Quebec, and the QR gold mine in British Columbia.

In the 2009 reserves compilation, the Fraser Morgan and Totten nickel-copper deposits in Ontario were listed as opening. In fact, neither mine opened in 2010. Fraser Morgan is undergoing a feasibility study and the Totten production date has been moved to 2012.

OUTLOOK

Strong metal prices encouraged the redevelopment of a number of old mines, the opening of some new ones, and expansions at operating mines. Despite the uncertainty surrounding European countries’ debt and the recovery of the U.S. economy, Canadian mining operations are in a valuable position to supply minerals and metals to satisfy the strong demand from emerging countries. A significant number of projects are advancing project feasibility studies, some of which are past producing mines. Therefore, Canada’s ore reserves should be able to maintain their current levels or even make gains, as was the case in 2010.

1Metal prices from Kitco.com and metalprices.com.

Note: Information in this article was current as of September 2011.

Note to Readers

The intent of this document is to provide general information and to elicit discussion. It is not intended as a reference, guide or suggestion to be used in trading, investment, or other commercial activities. The author and Natural Resources Canada make no warranty of any kind with respect to the content and accept no liability, either incidental, consequential, financial or otherwise, arising from the use of this document.

Figure 1
Generalized Model of Mineral Resource Development

Figure 2
Canadian Reserves of Selected Major Metals, 1988-2010
(Metal Contained in Proven and Probable Mineable Ore in Operating Mines and Deposits Committed to Production as at December 31 of Each Year)

Figure 2. Canadian Reserves of Selected Major Metals

Source: Natural Resources Canada, based on company reports.
Note: This series was revised during 1996.

[Text Version - Figure 2. Canadian Reserves of Selected Major Metals, 1988-2010]

Figure 3
Main Components of Change in Canada’s Reserves of Selected Major Metals, 1988-2010

Figure 3. Main Components  of Change in Canada’s Reserves of Selected Major Metals, 1988-2010

Source: Natural Resources Canada.

[Text Version - Figure 3. Main Components of Change in Canada's Reserves of Selected Major Metals, 1988-2010]

Figure 4
Annual Rates of Change of Canadian Reserves of Selected Major Metals, 2008-10

Figure 4. Annual Rates of  Change of Canadian Reserves of Selected Major Metals, 2008-10

Source: Natural Resources Canada.
Note: Vale S.A. does not report resources, so nickel, copper, silver, and gold may be under-reported.

[Text Version - Figure 4. Annual Rates of Change of Canadian Reserves of Selected Major Metals, 2008-10]

Source: Natural Resources Canada, based on published company reports and the federal-provincial/territorial survey of mines and concentrators.
– Nil.

TABLE 1. MAIN COMPONENTS OF CHANGE DURING 2010 IN CANADIAN RESERVES OF SELECTED MAJOR METALS
Metal Unit Revised Opening Metal Balance, January 2010 Metal in Ore Mined During 2010 Metal Apparently Written Off During 2010 Metal in New Reserves Found During 2010 Net Change During 2010 Closing Metal Balance, December 2010 % Change During 2010
Copper 000 t 7 290 599 -184 4 240 3 457 10 747 47.00
Nickel 000 t 3 301 184 -183 140 -227 3 074 -6.89
Lead 000 t 451 109 -5 63 -51 400 -11.31
Zinc 000 t 4 250 754 -36 673 -116 4 133 -2.74
Molybdenum 000 t 215 9 48 39 254 18.00
Silver t 6 254 822 -56 1 540 662 6 916 11.00
Gold t 918 193 -18 766 555 1 473 60.00
TABLE 2. TONNAGES AND GRADES OF OPERATIONS INCLUDED IN CANADIAN RESERVES OF SELECTED MAJOR METALS, AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2010
Tonnages classified by companies as “resources” are not included, nor are tonnages for which there is no firm production decision. Confidential data have been suppressed from the details of this report.
Province or Territory, Name of Mine, Resource Type Tonnes Grade
Ag Au Cu Mo Ni Pb Zn
(g/t) (g/t) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Copper Mountain
Proven 134 864 805 1.34 0.10 0.38 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 76 306 030 1.09 0.08 0.32 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Endako
Proven (mine) 102 693 313 n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.05 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Proven (stockpile) 29 211 349 n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.04 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 150 229 793 n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.05 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Gibraltar
Proven 585 000 000 n.a. n.a. 0.31 0.01 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 217 000 000 n.a. n.a. 0.29 0.01 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Highland Valley
Proven 378 300 000 x x 0.32 0.01 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 245 400 000 x x 0.28 0.01 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Huckleberry
Proven + Probable . . . . . . . . . . n.a. n.a. n.a.
Kemess South
Proven 3 495 303 n.a. 0.24 0.12 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Mount Polley
Proven + Probable 45 807 000 0.47 0.26 0.31 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Mt. Milligan
Proven 302 700 000 n.a. 0.01 0.21 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 229 100 000 n.a. 0.01 0.19 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Myra Falls
Proven + Probable 6 255 000 43.00 1.30 0.90 n.a. n.a. 0.50 4.90
New Afton
Probable 47 400 000 2.03 0.69 0.95 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
QR
Proven 12 090 n.a. 4.69 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 181 380 n.a. 4.86 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
MANITOBA
777 Deposit
Proven 4 597 000 29.33 2.26 2.83 n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.45
Probable 8 756 000 27.01 1.77 1.74 n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.19
Bucko
Proven 359 000 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.63 n.a. n.a.
Probable 3 349 000 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.44 n.a. n.a.
Chisel Lake North
Proven 164 000 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 8.77
Probable 148 000 19.61 1.50 1.07 n.a. n.a. n.a. 6.29
Rice Lake
Proven 528 740 n.a. 7.59 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 1 906 845 n.a. 10.95 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Trout Lake
Proven 409 000 9.66 2.06 2.10 n.a. n.a. n.a. 3.53
Probable 36 000 1.01 1.17 2.18 n.a. n.a. n.a. 1.43
Vale Manitoba Division
Proven 8 200 000 x x 0.11 n.a. 1.79 n.a. n.a.
Probable 18 500 000 x x 0.10 n.a. 1.69 n.a. n.a.
NEW BRUNSWICK
Brunswick No. 12
Proven 5 400 000 98.00 x 0.40 n.a. n.a. 3.20 8.00
Probable 2 200 000 84.00 x 0.30 n.a. n.a. 3.10 8.10
NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR
Duck Pond
Proven 2 100 000 x x 2.89 n.a. n.a. n.a. 4.80
Probable 500 000 x x 2.97 n.a. n.a. n.a. 2.50
Pine Cove
Probable 2 635 000 n.a. 2.07 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Voisey's Bay
Proven 21 000 000 n.a. n.a. 1.65 n.a. 2.87 n.a. n.a.
Probable 3 100 000 n.a. n.a. 0.36 n.a. 0.65 n.a. n.a.
NUNAVUT
Meadowbank
Proven 839 000 n.a. 3.13 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 33 259 000 n.a. 3.18 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
ONTARIO
Black Fox
Proven 287 000 n.a. 1.50 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable (open pit) 3 113 000 n.a. 3.20 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable (underground) 2 936 000 n.a. 5.90 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Eagle River
Proven 88 400 0.60 11.00 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 256 600 0.60 16.50 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Hemlo (David Bell, Williams)
Proven 4 896 076 n.a. 3.67 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 11 785 237 n.a. 2.06 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Hislop
Proven + Probable 2 108 000 n.a. 2.05 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Holloway
Proven + Probable 138 000 n.a. 3.96 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Holt
Proven + Probable 3 135 000 n.a. 5.06 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Island Gold
Proven 354 698 n.a. 6.48 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 463 368 n.a. 5.86 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Kidd Creek
Proven 14 900 000 57.00 n.a. 2.08 n.a. n.a. 0.16 4.84
Probable 2 500 000 37.00 n.a. 1.38 n.a. n.a. 0.13 4.23
Lac des Iles
Proven 549 000 n.a. 0.29 0.06 n.a. 0.07 n.a. n.a.
Probable 586 000 n.a. 0.30 0.06 n.a. 0.08 n.a. n.a.
Levack/Morrison
Proven 910 000 n.a. 0.81 8.28 n.a. 1.61 n.a. n.a.
Macassa
Proven 1 086 807 x 15.74 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 2 029 372 x 23.48 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
McCreedy West
Probable 530 000 n.a. 0.58 1.19 n.a. 1.00 n.a. n.a.
McWatters
Probable . . n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. . . n.a. n.a.
Musselwhite
Proven 4 120 000 n.a. 6.01 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 6 420 000 n.a. 6.39 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Podolsky
Probable 460 000 n.a. 0.69 3.34 n.a. 0.29 n.a. n.a.
Porcupine
Proven 28 300 000 x 1.37 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 48 290 000 x 1.32 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Red Lake (Campbell and Cochenour)
Proven 2 080 000 2.80 16.54 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 7 860 000 2.80 11.92 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Redstone
Proven . . n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. . . n.a. n.a.
Probable 197 000 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 0.95 n.a. n.a.
Shakespeare
Probable . . n.a. . . . . n.a. . . n.a. n.a.
Timmins
Proven 3 663 986 n.a. 7.36 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Vale Ontario Division
Proven 66 100 000 x 0.30 1.51 n.a. 1.23 n.a. n.a.
Probable 46 200 000 x 0.50 1.55 n.a. 1.15 n.a. n.a.
Xstrata Sudbury
Proven 7 320 000 n.a. n.a. 1.60 n.a. 1.50 n.a. n.a.
Probable 7 470 000 n.a. n.a. 3.82 n.a. 1.14 n.a. n.a.
Young-Davidson
Proven 7 262 000 n.a. 2.37 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 25 128 000 n.a. 2.80 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
QUEBEC
Beaufor
Proven 81 742 n.a. 7.53 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 201 296 n.a. 7.60 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Bracemac-MacLeod
Proven 3 700 000 28.00 0.40 1.30 n.a. n.a. n.a. 9.60
Probable 100 000 28.00 0.40 2.40 n.a. n.a. n.a. 6.30
Canadian Malartic
Proven 28 400 000 n.a. 0.92 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable  400 000 n.a. 1.16 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Casa Berardi
Proven 2 271 000 n.a. 7.60 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 5 583 000 n.a. 5.00 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Francoeur
Probable 615 664 n.a. 6.91 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Goldex
Proven 14 804 000 n.a. 1.87 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 12 990 000 n.a. 1.62 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Kiena
Proven 534 000 n.a. 2.90 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 563 000 n.a. 2.70 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Lac Herbin
Proven 43 000 n.a. 7.45 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 96 000 n.a. 6.45 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Lapa
Proven 1 122 000 n.a. 7.24 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 1 709 000 n.a. 7.56 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
LaRonde
Proven 4 838 000 55.17 2.36 0.26 n.a. n.a. 0.32 2.78
Probable 29 892 000 23.99 4.63 0.28 n.a. n.a. 0.07 0.90
Mouska (Doyon Division)
Proven 66 000 n.a. 14.70 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 109 000 n.a. 11.90 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Perseverence
Proven 3 000 000 28.00 0.30 1.10 n.a. n.a. n.a. 13.50
Raglan
Proven 5 320 000 n.a. n.a. 0.61 n.a. 2.11 n.a. n.a.
Probable 6 260 000 n.a. n.a. 0.86 n.a. 3.50 n.a. n.a.
Sigma-Lamaque
Proven 1 086 000 n.a. 4.69 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 2 070 000 n.a. 4.26 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Sleeping Giant
Proven 91 000 n.a. 8.90 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 96 000 n.a. 9.80 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
SASKATCHEWAN
Seabee
Proven 1 967 053 n.a. 5.58 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
YUKON
Minto
Proven 7 770 000 5.37 0.63 1.56 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Probable 5 090 000 4.91 0.54 1.50 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Wolverine
Proven 536 690 245.05 . . 0.97 n.a. n.a. 1.26 10.50
Probable 4 587 943 286.20 1.37 0.91 n.a. n.a. 1.26 9.59

Source: Natural Resources Canada, based on published company reports and the federal-provincial/territorial survey of mines and concentrators.
. . Not available in published reports; n.a. Not applicable; x Confidential.
Notes: One tonne (t) = 1.1023113 short tons. One gram per tonne (g/t) = 0.02916668 troy oz per short ton.

TABLE 3. CANADIAN RESERVES OF SELECTED MAJOR METALS, BY PROVINCE AND TERRITORY, AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2010
Metal Unit (1) N.L. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. B.C. Yukon N.W.T. Nun. Canada (2)
Copper 000 t 433 28 266 2 599 321 6 854 245 10 747
Nickel 000 t 623 331 1 606 514 3 074
Lead 000 t 241 36 27 31 65 400
Zinc 000 t 113 610 1 170 827 610 306 496 4 133
Molybdenum 000 t 254 254
Silver t 60 714 1 174 1 970 385 1 102 1 511 6 916
Gold t 6 1 574 623 52 11 83 15 108 1 473

Source: Natural Resources Canada, based on published company reports and the federal-provincial/territorial survey of mines and concentrators.
– Nil or less than one unit.
(1) One tonne (t) = 1.1023113 short tons = 32 150.746 troy oz. (2) May not balance due to rounding at the provincial or territorial level.

TABLE 4. CANADIAN RESERVES OF SELECTED METALS, BY INDUSTRY, AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2010
Metal Unit Gold
Mines
Copper, Copper-Zinc Mines Nickel-Copper Mines Zinc-Lead-Silver Mines Molybdenum Mines Miscellaneous Metal Mines Canada
NAICS Code n.a. 212220 212233 212232 212231 212299 212299 n.a.
Copper 000 t 96 7 849 2 726 75 1 10 747
Nickel 000 t 3 073 1 3 074
Lead 000 t 36 58 306 400
Zinc 000 t 404 2 623 1 107 4 133
Molybdenum 000 t 123 130 254
Silver t 1 038 2 738 981 2 159 6 916
Gold t 1 299 119 47 8 1 473

Source: Natural Resources Canada, based on published company reports and the federal-provincial/territorial survey of mines and concentrators.
– Nil or less than one unit; n.a. Not applicable; NAICS North American Industry Classification System; t Tonnes.
Note: Molybdenum Mines and Miscellaneous Metal Mines have the same NAICS code.

TABLE 5. CANADIAN RESERVES OF SELECTED MAJOR METALS AS OF DECEMBER 31 OF EACH YEAR, 1977-2010
Metal Contained in Proven and Probable Mineable Ore (1) in Operating Mines (2) and Deposits Committed to Production (3)
Year Copper Nickel Lead Zinc Molybdenum Silver Gold
(000 t) (000 t) (000 t) (000 t) (000 t) (t) (t)
1977 16 914 7 749 8 954 26 953 369 30 991 493
1978 16 184 7 843 8 930 26 721 464 30 995 505
1979 16 721 7 947 8 992 26 581 549 32 124 575
1980 16 714 8 348 9 637 27 742 551 33 804 826
1981 15 511 7 781 9 380 26 833 505 32 092 851
1982 16 889 7 546 9 139 26 216 469 31 204 833
1983 16 214 7 393 9 081 26 313 442 31 425 1 172
1984 15 530 7 191 9 180 26 000 361 30 757 1 208
1985 14 201 7 041 8 503 24 553 331 29 442 1 373
1986 12 918 6 780 7 599 22 936 312 25 914 1 507
1987 12 927 6 562 7 129 21 471 231 25 103 1 705
1988 12 485 6 286 6 811 20 710 208 26 122 1 801
1989 12 082 6 092 6 717 20 479 207 24 393 1 645
1990 11 261 5 776 5 643 17 847 198 20 102 1 542
1991 11 040 5 691 4 957 16 038 186 17 859 1 433
1992 10 755 5 605 4 328 14 584 163 15 974 1 345
1993 9 740 5 409 4 149 14 206 161 15 576 1 333
1994 9 533 5 334 3 861 14 514 148 19 146 1 513
1995 9 250 5 832 3 660 14 712 129 19 073 1 540
1996 9 667 5 623 3 450 13 660 144 18 911 1 724
1997 9 032 5 122 2 344 10 588 149 16 697 1 510
1998 8 402 5 683 1 845 10 159 121 15 738 1 415
1999 7 761 4 983 1 586 10 210 119 15 368 1 326
2000 7 419 4 782 1 315 8 876 97 13 919 1 142
2001 6 666 4 335 970 7 808 95 12 593 1 070
2002 6 774 4 920 872 6 871 82 11 230 1 023
2003 6 037 4 303 749 6 251 78 9 245 1 009
2004 5 546 3 846 667 5 299 80 6 568 787
2005 6 589 3 960 552 5 063 95 6 684 958
2006 6 923 3 940 737 6 055 101 6 873 1 032
2007 7 565 3 778 682 5 984 213 6 588 987
2008 7 456 3 605 534 5 005 222 5 665 947
2009 7 290 3 301 451 4 250 215 6 254 918
2010 10 747 3 074 400 4 133 254 6 916 1 473

Source: Natural Resources Canada, based on published company reports and the federal-provincial/territorial survey of mines and concentrators.
(1) No allowance is made for losses in milling, smelting and refining. Excludes material classified as "resources." (2) Includes metal in mines where production has been suspended temporarily. (3) Excludes metal in placer deposits because reserves data are generally unavailable.
Note: One tonne (t) = 1.1023113 short tons = 32 150.746 troy oz.

TABLE 6. CANADIAN RESOURCES OF SELECTED MAJOR METALS AS OF DECEMBER 31 OF EACH YEAR, 2008-10
Metal Contained in Measured and Indicated Resources (1) in Operating Mines (2) and Deposits Committed to Production (3)
Year Copper Nickel Lead Zinc Molybdenum Silver Gold
(000 t) (000 t) (000 t) (000 t) (000 t) (t) (t)
2008 3 061 673 256 1 730 250 1 683 477
2009 3 955 817 197 1 384 119 2 711 556
2010 2 376 385 200 1 460 40 3 224 653

Source: Natural Resources Canada, based on published company reports.
(1) Excludes material classified as "reserves." (2) Includes metal in mines where production has been suspended temporarily. (3) Excludes metal in placer deposits because resources data are generally unavailable.
Notes: One tonne (t) = 1.1023113 short tons = 32 150.746 troy oz. Vale S.A. does not report resources, so nickel, copper, silver, and gold may be under-reported.

TABLE 7. CANADIAN RESOURCES OF SELECTED MAJOR METALS, BY PROVINCE AND TERRITORY, AS OF DECEMBER 31
OF EACH YEAR, 2008-10
Metal Contained in Measured and Indicated Resources (1) in Operating Mines (2) and Deposits Committed to Production (3)
Metal Unit N.L. N.S. N.B. Que. Ont. Man. Sask. B.C. Yukon N.W.T. Nun. Canada
2008
Copper t 2 369 12 800 202 703 534 788 2 078 436 230 000 3 061 096
Nickel t 82 190 548 622 41 965 672 777
Lead t 225 636 10 158 9 650 10 350 255 794
Zinc t 7 015 484 481 812 666 283 380 142 869 1 730 411
Molybdenum t 249 570 249 570
Silver kg 6 759 563 494 513 276 250 840 176 263 475 84 504 1 682 524
Gold kg 94 147 567 224 593 1 971 6 096 40 652 8 332 47 645 476 950
2009
Copper t 7 500 11 000 77 567 683 649 2 913 615 261 238 3 954 569
Nickel t 180 140 595 303 41 965 817 408
Lead t 100 900 9 723 6 719 8 913 70 387 196 642
Zinc t 14 200 268 800 198 526 232 952 128 251 541 457 1 384 186
Molybdenum t 119 011 119 011
Silver kg 7 983 311 700 182 061 451 595 229 98 220 1 659 447 2 711 235
Gold kg 57 75 751 300 148 3 333 6 442 51 945 14 897 103 032 555 605
2010
Copper t 7 500 7 400 75 194 294 781 1 529 021 462 121 2 376 017
Nickel t 184 308 165 677 35 372 385 357
Lead t 64 000 9 013 11 150 8 019 108 081 200 263
Zinc t 14 200 161 700 320 459 276 930 119 190 567 522 1 460 001
Molybdenum t 39 807 39 807
Silver kg 6 873 204 400 404 915 346 532 165 617 2 095 178 3 223 515
Gold kg 45 172 948 385 665 1 036 3 840 24 062 22 599 43 086 653 281

Source: Natural Resources Canada, based on published company reports.
– Nil or less than one unit.
(1) Excludes material classified as "reserves." (2) Includes metal in mines where production has been suspended temporarily. (3) Excludes metal in placer deposits because resources data are generally unavailable.
Notes: One tonne (t) = 1.1023113 short tons = 32 150.746 troy oz. Vale S.A. does not report resources, so nickel, copper, silver, and gold may be under-reported.

TABLE 8. CANADIAN RESOURCES OF SELECTED MAJOR METALS BY NAICS AS OF DECEMBER 31 OF EACH YEAR, 2008-10
Metal Contained in Measured and Indicated Resources (1) in Operating Mines (2) and Deposits Committed to Production (3)
Metal Unit (4) Gold Mines Copper, Copper-Zinc Mines Nickel-Copper Mines Zinc-Lead-Silver Mines Molybdenum Mines Miscellaneous Metal Mines Canada (6)
NAICS Code (5) 212220 212233 212232 212231 212299 212299 n.a.
(percent)
2008
Copper t 2.232 81.653 14.879 0.418 0.818 100
Nickel t 95.289   4.711 100
Lead t 3.971 7.819 88.210 100
Zinc t 5.687 66.315 27.998 100
Molybdenum t 15.542 84.458 100
Silver kg 12.414 54.095 33.491 100
Gold kg 86.898 10.830 0.606 1.667 100
2009
Copper t 0.213 85.423 13.437 0.278 0.649 100
Nickel t 96.142 3.858 100
Lead t 4.945 43.744 51.312 100
Zinc t 7.118 73.463 19.419 100
Molybdenum t 50.367 49.633 100
Silver kg 6.480 82.024 11.497 100
Gold kg 86.040 12.152 0.365 1.443 100
2010
Copper t 0.350 87.645 8.634 2.494 0.877 100
Nickel t 92.841 7.159 100
Lead t 4.501 9.572 85.928 100
Zinc t 6.458 43.595 49.947 100
Molybdenum t 29.744 70.256 100
Silver kg 5.626 27.471 66.904 100
Gold kg 91.561 6.037 0.207 1.158 1.037 100

Source: Natural Resources Canada, based on published company reports.
– Nil or less than one unit; n.a. Not applicable.
(1) Excludes material classified as "reserves." (2) Includes metal in mines where production has been suspended temporarily. (3) Excludes metal in placer deposits because resources data are generally unavailable. (4) One tonne (t) = 1.1023113 short tons = 32 150.746 troy oz. (5) NAICS = North American Industry Classification System. (6) May not balance due to rounding at the NAICS level.

TABLE 9. PRODUCTION DECISIONS ADDED TO CANADIAN RESERVE TOTALS AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2010
Status Project Operators and Major Partners Province/Territory Metals
Rejuvenated Bellekeno Alexco Resources Corp. Yukon Silver
New Bracemac-McLeod Xstrata plc., Donner Metals Ltd. Quebec Copper, zinc
Rejuvenated Canadian Malartic Osisko Mining Corporation Ontario Gold
Rejuvenated Copper Mountain Copper Mountain Mining Corp. British Columbia Copper, gold
Re-opened Franceour Richmont Mines Inc. Quebec Gold
Re-opened Holt St. Andrew Goldfields Ltd. Ontario Gold
New Mt. Milligan Thompson Creek Metals Company British Columbia Copper, gold
Rejuvenated New Afton New Gold Inc. British Columbia Copper,gold
Re-opened QR Barkerville Gold Mines Ltd. British Columbia Gold
Re-opened Sigma-Lamaque Century Mining Corp. Quebec Gold
Rejuvenated Young-Davidson Northgate Minerals Corp. Ontario Gold
n.a. Fraser Morgan (1) Xstrata plc. Ontario Nickel, copper
n.a. Totten (1) Vale Ontario Nickel, copper

Source: Natural Resources Canada.
n.a. Not applicable.
(1) In 2009, these two mines were listed as opening in 2010; however, neither opened. Fraser Morgan is undergoing a feasibility study and Totten's production date has been moved back to 2012.

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2012