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Auto$mart D.E.N. Drivers Educator's Newsletter

Spring 2010 Edition – Volume 7

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Unless you're a Formula 1™ driver, getting the most out of a vehicle isn't a race to the finish line – it's about achieving the best possible mileage, regardless of the vehicle's size or age, while keeping safety uppermost in mind. That's an important message for novice drivers – and research shows that fuel- efficient driving holds the key.

Fuel-efficient driving involves a range of strategies, from planning trips and monitoring fuel consumption to maintaining correct tire pressure and reducing idling time.

Five driving techniques can deliver major fuel savings:

figure 1

driving at 120 kilometres per hour (km/h) rather than 100 km/h will increase fuel consumption by about 20 percent

anticipating traffic flow allows you to maintain a constant speed and avoid the gas-guzzling habits of rapid acceleration and hard braking

hard acceleration can increase fuel consumption by 15 percent

driving at a steady speed uses less fuel than frequent changes in speed

remove your foot from the accelerator as soon as possible and allow the vehicle to coast (most modern vehicles cut off fuel supply to the engine when the accelerator is released)

By making these five simple changes in driving techniques, you can reduce fuel consumption by up to 25 percent. This can easily result in a financial savings of up to $500 each year.

But fuel-efficient driving does more than save fuel and money; it also makes for safer roads. Fuel-efficient driving focuses on such techniques as allowing sufficient space when following another vehicle, observing what is happening on the road ahead and driving at a steady speed – practices that not only improve fuel economy but also help avoid potential collisions.

Fuel-efficient driving has important environmental benefits, too. Fuel-efficient driving techniques burn less fuel than other, more aggressive driving styles and thus produce fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the leading cause of climate change. If all drivers in Canada practised fuel-efficient driving, we would collectively prevent six megatonnes of carbon dioxide – the principal GHG – from entering the atmosphere each year (for more information on transportation's impact on climate change, see the article on page 9).

The combination of enhanced fuel efficiency, improved road safety and reduced GHG emissions make fuel-efficient driving a winning strategy for Canadian motorists and driving schools. The Auto$mart Driver Education Kit has tools and information that can help you incorporate fuel efficiency into your lesson program, both in the classroom and on the road.

Go With The Flow . . .

Aggressive driving styles – such as hard acceleration, frequent braking and speeding – can increase a vehicle's fuel consumption by up to 39 percent. That's why anticipating traffic flow and adjusting your speed accordingly is one of the keys to fuel efficiency.

Anticipating traffic flow means that you can change your vehicle speed more gradually, avoiding the need to slam on the brakes when traffic slows and then to step on the accelerator to get back up to speed.

A study in Japan revealed that for a vehicle travelling at an average speed of 80 km/h, changes in speed of 5 km/h (up or down) to adjust to traffic flow increased fuel consumption by 20 percent when the fluctuation occurred over 18 seconds. When the fluctuation in speed occurred over a shorter period of 12 seconds, fuel consumption increased by 50 percent.

Driving at a steady speed can also help you avoid unnecessary stopping and starting in city driving. That's because traffic lights are often synchronized so a vehicle travelling at a specific speed will pass through a series of green lights without stopping, thus reducing congestion and improving traffic flow. Driving more quickly than anticipated can mean that your vehicle is out of synch with the lights and is not moving as efficiently as might be the case with a steady speed.

Why Speed Is Important

All vehicles have a fuel efficiency "sweet spot" – the speed at which fuel efficiency is optimized. Although this varies from vehicle to vehicle, the sweet spot typically falls between 50 and 80 km/h.

Fuel-efficient driving stresses that you should always avoid high speeds and follow the speed limit. Although this means that fuel efficiency may not be optimal at lower speeds (safety comes first), following the speed limit on the highway will more than make up the difference.

Driving at 120 km/h rather than 100 km/h can increase your fuel consumption by about 20 percent. On a 25-km trip, a vehicle driven at 120 km/h would arrive only 2.5/min earlier than a vehicle driven at 100 km/h. Driving 100 km at the higher speed would get you there 10 min faster.

Ask your students: Are these gains in travel time really worth the extra fuel costs and environmental emissions, not to mention the potential for a traffic fine or, worse yet, a speed-related collision?

A typical vehicle driven 100 km at a speed of 120 km/h would consume 2 litres (L) more fuel than if it had been driven at 100 km/h. At gasoline prices of $1/L, that's the equivalent of throwing a toonie out the window every hour.

Fuel-Efficient Driving Strategies
can boost fuel efficiency by up to 25 percent

  • Accelerate gently
  • Maintain a steady speed
  • Avoid high speeds
  • Anticipate traffic
  • Coast to decelerate

Managing travel can further your fuel savings

  • Drive less often
  • Plan and combine trips
  • Track fuel consumption

Other helpful tips to reduce fuel use

  • Use a fuel consumption display
  • Avoid unnecessary idling
  • Check tire pressure monthly
  • Avoid carrying unnecessary weight
  • Remove roof racks when not in use
  • Use air conditioning sparingly

Driver educators in Manitoba take the eco-driving challenge

Driver educators in Manitoba were put to the test in September, and many passed with flying colours.

As part of its annual "in-service" workshops for driver educators, Manitoba Public Insurance (MPI) invited Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to teach driver educators about fuel efficiency.

NRCan staff put MPI's instructors through the paces by undertaking an "in-car" eco-driving challenge. Instructors drove a designated course two times. For the first run, instructors received no information. On the second run, NRCan staff reminded them of the five key principles of fuel-efficient driving: accelerate gently, maintain a steady speed, avoid high speeds, anticipate the flow of traffic and coast to decelerate (for more information, see page 2).

Driving time and fuel consumption were recorded for each driver, and the top performers – those with the lowest fuel consumption – were awarded prizes by NRCan at the end of each of four sessions (three in Winnipeg and one in Brandon). The average fuel consumption of all 157 drivers who participated in the challenge was 7.2 L/100 km, but one driver educator drove the route consuming as little as 4.7 L/100 km.

"I think it's safe to say that the in-service was a great success. It was interesting that despite the fact that educators are already safe and proactive drivers, on average we witnessed a 15 percent reduction in fuel use during the second-driving run - just by the drivers focusing on the five fuel-saving behaviours," notes Charles Crispim, Senior Manager with the ecoENERGY for Personal Vehicles program. "All of the driver educators went away from the workshop with a better understanding of how their personal driving habits affect fuel consumption. Just as important, they learned that, by adopting fuel efficient driving techniques, everyone can make a difference in reducing GHG emissions."

MPI is responsible for delivering driver education to high school students across Manitoba and is a valued Auto$mart partner. NRCan wishes to thank the organizers and the driver educators for participating in the fuel-efficient driver training sessions

Who were the top performers?


September 11
Marlene Reimer
4.7 L/100 km

September 12
Roman Slowinski
5.1 L/100 km

September 19
Jan Frizzley
5.0 L/100 km


September 26
Ross Mann
and Leonard

4.9 L/100 km

DriveWiser project targets novice drivers in Nova Scotia

When it comes to social marketing campaigns, Clean Nova Scotia is a recognized leader in providing information and resources to help the public make positive decisions about the environment. The DriveWiser project is a case in point.

"The goal of DriveWiser is to educate Nova Scotians and encourage them to commit to buying, maintaining and driving their vehicles more fuel efficiently in order to reduce GHG emissions and improve air quality," says Gina Patterson, Project Coordinator with Clean Nova Scotia, a non-profit foundation that has delivered programming across the province for 20 years. "We help people get from point A to point B using the least amount of fuel possible."

Launched in November 2006, DriveWiser initially targeted drivers between the ages of 25 and 55. In April 2008, it was expanded to include youth who are new to driving, as well as mature drivers who are looking to renew their driving skills.

The youth-targeted component of the project includes fuel efficiency presentations at driving schools, as well as high schools, colleges and universities, combined with hands-on workshops that focus on techniques for managing our dependence on vehicles and fossil fuels. More than 500 youth committed to changing their vehicle behaviours by reducing idling by 10 minutes a day, reducing highway speed by an average of 10 km/h and checking tire pressure regularly.

"The first year of the project has been a great success," says Patterson. "We have received an overwhelmingly positive response from students and teachers through surveys, letters of thanks and follow-up phone calls. Many have requested additional presentations."

DriveWiser has also developed a resource kit for driver educators, drawing in part from information in the Auto$mart Driver Education Kit. Today some 30 driving schools use the DriveWiser kit, and many of them have incorporated fuel efficiency lessons into their regular curriculum.

DriveWiser's profile on Facebook, a social networking Web site, had close to 700 members at the end of the project's first year. A five-week, province-wide radio advertising campaign in early 2009 resulted in a significant spike in Web site hits and increased telephone enquires about the project.

Patterson notes that partnerships are key to the project's success. For example, Clean Nova Scotia is collaborating with The Chronicle Herald, a daily newspaper, to run a bi-weekly "Pump It Green" column that covers topics on fuel efficiency. A partnership with the Halifax Regional Police resulted in the distribution of 3000 flyers that discussed speeding and its associated costs. DriveWiser materials are also being distributed through auto dealerships and independent service shops. Access Nova Scotia also distributes them in its regular mailings on vehicle inspections and licence renewals.

For more information about Clean Nova Scotia's efforts to inspire positive change among the province's driving public, visit

Real-time feedback can improve driving habits

On-board computers have long been standard equipment in new vehicles, but many models now come equipped with data display systems that can provide real-time feedback on everything from fuel consumption to tire pressure. Using this in-car information to maximize fuel efficiency is a key trait of fuel-efficient driving.

Take fuel economy, for example. Many on-board data systems provide you with information on your vehicle's average fuel consumption over the past few trips, as well as instant feedback on its current rate of consumption.

The latter function allows you to immediately see how your behaviours behind the wheel – such as accelerating rapidly, driving at a faster speed or using air conditioning – can cause a spike in fuel consumption. In-car fuel readings also enable you to compare your fuel consumption with the vehicle's rating in NRCan's Fuel Consumption Guide.

Some data display systems use monitors installed in wheels to provide instant, tire-by-tire air pressure readings, even as you travel down the road. This can help you identify and correct chronically underinflated tires. Every 5 percent of underinflation leads to a 1 percent increase in fuel consumption caused by increased rolling resistance. Underinflated tires also wear faster and can be a safety hazard.

On-board data systems can also alert you when it's time for an oil change or other routine maintenance. Some systems perform regular engine checks to identify "hidden" problems that may be affecting fuel economy or that could lead to a roadside breakdown.

Add-on devices – some of which can easily be moved from one vehicle to another – are available for vehicles that do not come factory-equipped with real-time feedback systems. Some manufacturers advertise that real-time feedback systems can help improve fuel economy by 15 percent or more, simply by showing how different driving styles and habits affect fuel consumption.

Don't have an on-board tracking system?

Even if your vehicle isn't equipped with real-time feedback capabilities, you can still keep track of fuel consumption with a minimum of time and effort. NRCan's Auto$mart Web site makes it easy.

NRCan has created "Track Your Fuel Consumption," an on-line tool that helps you calculate and track your fuel consumption and compare it with the ratings in the Fuel Consumption Guide. Drivers who register with NRCan can save their fuel consumption information on-line and compare their performance with others with the same vehicle.

Encourage your students to give NRCan's "Track Your Fuel Consumption" tool a try by visiting

Tracking fuel consumption involves 4 easy steps:

Step 1 Fill the vehicle's gas tank completely and write down the odometer reading.

Step 2 When it's time to refuel, fill the tank completely and write down the number of litres it took to fill the tank and the vehicle's new odometer reading.

Step 3 Calculate the distance driven by subtracting the new odometer reading from the previous one. (Note: The vehicle's trip odometer can also be used to track the distance travelled between fill-ups.)

Step 4 Divide the number of litres it took to fill the tank by the distance travelled and multiply this value by 100. The result is the vehicle's fuel consumption for that driving period.

EcoDriving takes root in Ontario communities

Motorists in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) and other parts of Ontario are learning about the benefits of EcoDriving, thanks to a community-based social marketing campaign that encourages people to drive fuel efficiently, buy fuel efficiently and drive less.

EcoDriver is a project of Green Communities Canada, which brings together community-based, non-profit organizations that deliver innovative environmental programs to Canadian households and communities. Launched in 2008 in York Region, Collingwood, Thunder Bay and Hamilton, EcoDriver was expanded in 2009 to include additional communities in the GTHA. Today local delivery agents in a dozen communities across the province are implementing EcoDriver.

"One of our roles as a national association is to make sure no one is reinventing the wheel, including ourselves," says Beth Jones, Associate Director of Green Communities Canada. "So we worked closely with Gina Patterson of Clean Nova Scotia, who has a lot of experience in this area, to develop a unique model of program delivery that combines community-based delivery with centralized program support."

Under this model, Green Communities Canada provides overall program design and coordination and develops materials and workshop templates. It also trains representatives of local delivery organizations on fuel efficiency and program delivery. Delivery agents then adapt the templates and materials to meet the specific needs and circumstances of their community.

EcoDriver activities include workshops and presentations on driving, buying and using vehicles to minimize fuel consumption; tire pressure blitzes; displays at community events and car dealerships; and local media events designed to raise awareness about fuel efficiency.

In York Region, for example, the Windfall Ecology Centre used its annual environmental festival in June 2009 to showcase hybrid vehicle technology. Local auto dealerships had hybrid models on display, and student volunteers answered questions about the vehicles. Visitors were invited to take a quiz on fuel-efficient driving and received free EcoDriver tire pressure gauges. An estimated 10 000 York Region residents visited the exhibit during the two-day festival.

Although the EcoDriver project is aimed primarily at drivers aged 30 to 60, Jones notes there has been a demand for youth-specific activities as well. In Muskoka, for example, the Muskoka Heritage Foundation worked with the Bracebridge and Muskoka Lakes Secondary School to deliver EcoDriver training to a select group of students in the auto-shop class. These student volunteers went on to lead presentations for other classes, including the driver education class. As a kick-off to Earth Week, the student volunteers also conducted a tire pressure blitz at a local grocery store/gas bar, with 120 local residents in attendance.

Ultimately, Green Communities Canada hopes to expand delivery of the EcoDriver project across Ontario and to other parts of Canada. For more information, visit

EcoDriver communities and delivery partners

Collingwood – Environment Network
Durham Region – Durham Sustain Ability
Halton Region – Elora Environment Centre
Hamilton – Green Venture
Peel Region – Community Environment Alliance
Thunder Bay – EcoSuperior
Toronto – Toronto Green Community
York Region – Windfall Ecology Centre
Midland – Severn Sound Environmental Association
Muskoka – Muskoka Heritage Foundation
North Bay – Greening Nipissing
Peterborough – Peterborough Green-Up

Photo Cutline 1: EcoDriver volunteers answered questions about the hybrids on display at Windfall's Ecology Festival (10 000 attendees, June 2009)

Photo Cutline 2: EcoDriver tire pressure clinic at Pickering Town Centre (July 2009)

In the D.E.N. with Ben Estrada


It is 7:50 a.m., you have to be at work by 8:00 a.m. and you are still 20 minutes away. What do you do? The clock is moving but the traffic is not, and you can feel your frustration level rising.

Finally the traffic starts to move – but how do you make up for lost time? You may have learned in high school physics class that "speed reduces time," but how much time do you really save by driving more aggressively?

The answer is, not much! On short trips of 5 to 25 km, the time you save driving at 120 km/h instead of 100 km/h is negligible.

120 km/h ($2.00 more per hour)

100 km/h

2.5 min (120 km/h)
3 min (100 km/h)
5-km trip - You save only 30 seconds!

12.5 min (120 km/h)
15 min (100 km/h)
25-km trip - You save only 2.5 minutes!


Yes, speed does reduce time – but behind the wheel is one place this equation should not be used to compensate for lost time. The risks involved are too high and the benefits are insignificant. As we teach in our classrooms, aggressive driving can increase fuel consumption by 39 percent, which wastes fuel and creates unnecessary pollution, not to mention the safety risks. Is it worth it to save only 2.5 minutes for every hour we drive?

Here are some tips that can help your students control their emotions behind the wheel:

  • Plan ahead. Choose a route that avoids heavy traffic areas so you can concentrate better.
  • Allow yourself plenty of time. Being in a hurry can cause you to become frustrated or angry.
  • Accept the fact that if you leave late, you will arrive late.
  • Think of your own safety and the safety of others. This can have a calming effect.
  • Leave your problems behind. If you can't focus, don't get behind the wheel.
  • Be patient and extra courteous. Compensate for the mistakes of others by creating space around your vehicle and seeing hazards well in advance so you have time to react.
  • Remember that "speed equals time" may be an acceptable answer in physics class, but on the road, it can be a formula for disaster.

Ben Estrada is an Auto$mart Master Trainer with Brisa Driving School Inc.

Update on the five-phase fuel efficiency strategy

NRCan's ecoENERGY for Personal Vehicles program uses a five-step strategy to promote safe, fuel-efficient driving. The program is working closely with provincial and territorial governments to implement this strategy. See the following table for an update on the progress in each jurisdiction.

Phase I Include fuel efficiency messages in handbooks for new drivers.

Phase II Include questions about fuel efficiency on exams for new drivers.

Phase III Add a mandatory component on fuel efficiency to their driver training curriculum.

Phase IV Make other Office of Energy Efficiency materials available to the public through licensing bureaus.

Phase V Provide a link from their driver training and licensing Web sites to the Auto$mart Web site.

Province/Territory Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV Phase V
Alberta X X X    
British Columbia X   X X X
Manitoba X X X X X
New Brunswick X        
Newfoundland & Labrador X X   X X
Nova Scotia X   X   X
Ontario X   X   X
Prince Edward Island X X   X X
Quebec X X X   X
Saskatchewan X   X   X
Northwest Territories X     X  
Yukon X     X X

Climate change:
Safe, fuel-efficient driving is part of the solution

The world's climate is changing, and scientists believe that human activities – particularly our combustion of fossil fuels – are a major contributing factor. Research in recent years suggests that climate change may have a variety of impacts on the environment and health. These impacts include everything from more severe weather events to rising sea levels, droughts, forest fires, floods and increased heat-related illnesses.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) – the main GHG that contributes to climate change – is an unavoidable by-product of burning fuel. That means that the millions of Canadians who drive vehicles every day are both part of the problem and part of the solution.

The transportation sector is responsible for 27 percent of Canada's GHG emissions. Light-duty vehicles – the cars, vans and light-duty trucks we drive – account for almost half of that total. For every litre of gasoline used, a vehicle produces about 2.3 kilograms of CO2. As a result of the fuel combustion process, the average car produces about three times its own weight in CO2 every year.

Canada has set a target of reducing its GHG emissions by 17 percent by 2020 (relative to 2005 levels). By teaching safe, fuel-efficient driving habits – with the help of Auto$mart tools and resources – driver educators are making an important contribution to this effort and helping to ensure a more stable, healthy environment for future generations.

Make idling education part of your lesson plan

Safe drivers are fuel-efficient drivers – as the Auto$mart Driver Education Kit emphasizes, the two go hand in hand. While teaching safe driving habits is your priority, it doesn't hurt to build other fuel-saving strategies into your lesson plan.

Eliminating unnecessary idling is a great example. This is an action most Canadians can take to save money, reduce GHG emissions and help alleviate certain health problems. And the best time for drivers to learn about idling is before they have developed any bad habits.

How does idling pose a risk to our health?

Although GHGs themselves do not create smog, research suggests that they can affect local air quality by contributing to higher temperatures, which tend to make air pollution worse and aggravate problems for people with respiratory and other health ailments. Higher temperatures caused by climate change can also increase the occurrence of heat-related illnesses and deaths.

Studies show that when all factors are considered, it is better to turn the engine off to save fuel and reduce GHG emissions than to let it idle unnecessarily. Balancing factors such as fuel savings, emissions and component wear, NRCan recommends turning the engine off if you're going to be stopped for more than 60 seconds, except in traffic

That's a good message to relay to students, so take a few minutes of classroom or in-car time to talk about the idling problem. You can find all the information you need on NRCan's popular Idle-Free Zone Web site at Encourage your students to visit the site to learn more about how they can take action to eliminate unnecessary idling.

Auto$mart a "natural fit" for new Ontario curriculum

When the Ontario Ministry of Transportation made fuel efficiency a mandatory element of beginner driver education across the province, many curriculum developers turned to a trusted and ready-to-use source of information: the Auto$mart Driver Education Kit.

William Pollock, President of Jetala Limited, says it just made sense to incorporate Auto$mart materials into the curriculum he developed in advance of the September 1, 2009, deadline.

"It is now mandated by the Government of Ontario that fuel efficiency be part of the program, and Auto$mart is a natural fit," says Pollock. "Kids want to save money, they want to save the environment, and they want to drive safely. Auto$mart ties all of that together. "

"I would be surprised if other curriculum developers were not using the Auto$mart materials," adds Pollock, whose new curriculum includes about 45 minutes of teaching about Auto$mart, as well as time for class discussions and activities. "The Auto$mart program is very supportive with materials, and it's free. I'm not aware of anyone else who is offering this type of package."

Charles Torreiro, Director of Operations at NTSA International, a Montréal-based company that produces textbooks, videos, curricula and other materials for traffic safety educators in Canada and the United States, also offers an enthusiastic endorsement of Auto$mart. NTSA International has used the program for more than a decade and has included Auto$mart materials in its new curriculum for Ontario driving schools.

"Why reinvent the wheel?" he asks. "The Auto$mart materials have been student-tested and proven to be effective. You can pick and choose stuff that is interesting to students and gets them involved. There is nothing else that is as comprehensive, as well-developed and as effective as Auto$mart, so I have no qualms about suggesting that people use elements of the Auto$mart program that are appropriate to their class."

Auto$mart Master Trainer Ben Estrada notes that the Auto$mart program is included as an integral component of the Brisa On Wheels curriculum, which offers three delivery choices to driving schools in Ontario.

"Our curriculum is the only one I am aware of that has adopted the entire Auto$mart program," says Estrada. "We include the complete Auto$mart binder in our package. Two of the Auto$mart modules are mandatory, and the other three are optional teaching."

In North Bay, Ontario, Emerald Carlson, operator of Genesis Driving School, says, "Auto$mart makes a good link between environmental issues and safe driving. It's a good program, and the students really like it." Carlson's new curriculum includes about 30 minutes of classroom time devoted to Auto$mart and about three hours of homework, so students cover the entire Auto$mart program.

Don't be stumped by a student!
The basic facts on ethanol fuel blends

Is it true that ethanol fuel blends don't produce as much energy as straight gasoline, so it costs more to travel the same distance? Is it safe to use ethanol fuel blends in my vehicle? Get ready for questions like these by understanding some facts about ethanol.

Ethanol is a liquid alcohol made up of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. It is obtained from the fermentation of sugar or converted starch contained in biomass, which means that it is a renewable resource. Today most of the ethanol produced in Canada is made from corn and wheat, although research into technology to produce it from non-food sources is showing promise.

All gasoline vehicles manufactured since the 1980s can run on a blend consisting of gasoline and up to 10 percent ethanol, known as E-10, which is widely available at service stations across Canada. Some vehicles are specially manufactured to operate on a fuel blend that contains up to 85 percent ethanol. However, E-85 is not widely available to the public.

E-10 contains only 97 percent of the energy of pure gasoline. However, this is partially compensated for by improved combustion efficiency (ethanol burns more completely than gasoline). Overall, the use of E-10 increases fuel consumption by an average of 2 percent compared with pure gasoline. This is minor when you consider the impact of other factors on fuel economy. Driving at 120 km/h rather than 100 km/h, for example, increases fuel consumption by an average of 20 percent.

Your students will be pleased to know that any loss of fuel economy is offset by the environmental advantages of ethanol-blended fuels. Ethanol reduces GHG emissions, because the biomass used to make the ethanol absorbs CO2 as it grows. E-10 made from corn produces about 3 to 4 percent fewer GHG emissions than gasoline does.

Visit for more information on ethanol and other alternative fuels.

Tell us your stories

Do you have any interesting stories to share about fuel efficiency? Maybe some tips on how you teach the subject in the classroom or on the road? Send them to us at, and we'll publish a selection of the best (together with the name of the educator and driving school) in the next edition of Auto$mart D.E.N.

Natural Resources Canada's Office of Energy Efficiency Leading Canadians to Energy Efficiency at Home, at Work and on the Road

Aussi disponible en français sous le titre : Le repère de l'instructeur – Édition PRINTEMPS 2010, volume 7

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2010

Inventory No. M27-01-2529E
ISSN 1911-4591 (Print)
ISSN 1911-4605 (On-line)

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