Canadian LNG Projects

Context

Much has changed in the North American liquefied natural gas (LNG) market in the past decade. Throughout the early to mid-2000’s, concerns over decreasing conventional supplies of domestic natural gas led to bullish predictions about future LNG demand in North America, resulting in an investment boom to build new LNG import facilities.

Around 2008, dramatic changes in the North American natural gas market began, driven by  surging U.S. unconventional natural gas production (mostly from shale gas). This changed the outlook for LNG imports. Natural gas production increased, North American prices fell significantly, and the expected need for imported LNG collapsed. In fact, LNG exports began to be contemplated.

As unconventional gas production increases, the U.S. is becoming increasingly self-sufficient with respect to natural gas. Pipeline exports from Canada to the U.S. are decreasing. With ample unconventional resources, industry has shifted its focus from importing LNG into North America to exporting LNG from North America.  The export of LNG could facilitate Canadian natural gas production growth and result in significant investment, jobs and economic growth.

Canadian LNG Projects

Twenty LNG export facilities have been proposed in Canada – 14 in British Columbia, 3 in Quebec and 3 in Nova Scotia – with a total proposed export capacity of 257 Million tons per annum (mtpa) of LNG (approximately 34 Billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/d) of natural gas). Since 2011, 24 LNG projects have been issued long-term export licenses. Canada’s only operational LNG terminal (an import terminal) is Canaport LNG’s regasification import terminal located in Saint John, New Brunswick.

According to a Conference Board of Canada study, which estimates the potential contributions LNG exports may make to the Canadian economy, an LNG export industry equivalent to 30 mtpa in British Columbia could add roughly $7.4 billion to Canada’s annual economy over the next 30 years, and raise national employment by an annual average of 65,000 jobs. The Government of Canada is working closely with British Columbia, other provinces and industry partners to create conditions to support the development of an LNG industry in Canada.

EXISTING IMPORT TERMINAL
Project Location
Canaport LNG Saint John, New Brunswick

Canadian LNG Import and Proposed Export Facilities

Project Export Licence Export Volume Million Tons per Annum (Mtpa) - Billion Cubic Feet per day (Bcf/d) Cost of the Project ($Billion)
14 West Coast (British Columbia) Export Terminals
Kitimat LNG 20 Years 10 Mtpa - 1.3 Bcf/d $15
LNG Canada 40 Years 26 Mtpa – 3.5 Bcf/d $25-$40
Cedar LNG Project 25 Years 6.4 Mtpa – 0.8 Bcf/d  
WCC LNG 40 Years 30 Mtpa – 4.0 Bcf/d $15-$25
Orca LNG 25 Years 24 Mtpa – 3.2 Bcf/d  
New Times Energy 25 Years 12 Mtpa – 1.6 Bcf/d  
Kitsault Energy Project 20 Years 20 Mtpa – 2.7 Bcf/d  
Stewart LNG Export Project 25 Years 30 Mtpa – 4.0 Bcf/d  
Triton LNG (On Hold) 25 Years 2.3 Mtpa – 0.3 Bcf/d  
Woodfibre LNG 25 Years 2.1 Mtpa – 0.3 Bcf/d $1.6
WesPac LNG Marine Terminal 25 Years 3 Mtpa – 0.6 Bcf/d  
Discovery LNG 25 Years 20 Mtpa – 2.6 Bcf/d  
Steelhead LNG: Kwispaa LNG 25 Years 30 Mtpa – 4.3 Bcf/d $30
Watson Island      
6 East Coast Export Terminals
Goldboro LNG
(Nova Scotia)
20 Years 10 Mtpa – 1.4 Bcf/d $8.3
Bear Head LNG
(Nova Scotia)
25 Years 12 Mtpa – 1.6 Bcf/d $2-$8
A C LNG
(Nova Scotia)
25 Years 15 Mtpa – 2.1 Bcf/d $3
Energie Saguenay (Quebec) 25 Years 11 Mtpa – 1.6 Bcf/d $7
Stolt LNGaz (Quebec) 25 Years 0.5 Mtpa – 0.7 Bcf/d $0.6
TUGLIQ Gaz Naturel Quubec Inc. (Quebec) Applying 0.8 Mtpa – 0.1 Bcf/d  
Total   257 Mtpa – 34 Bcf/d  

Canadian Government Position

The Minister of Natural Resources Canada has stated “The Canadian Government is taking steps to grow the Canadian economy, create good jobs and opportunities for Canadians, while protecting our environment for future generations. As the Prime Minister has emphasized, in the 21st century we must get our resources to market sustainably and responsibly. For all natural resource projects, the government is working closely with provinces and territories, Indigenous peoples, and other interested parties to ensure that the highest standards of public and environmental safety are being met, while creating new export opportunities for Canada’s natural resources.”

Regulations and Permitting

While the ongoing operation of LNG terminals generally falls under provincial regulation, most LNG terminal proposals require both federal and provincial environmental assessments and permits. 

Most of the proposed LNG facilities require new pipelines or the expansion of existing pipelines.  Intra-provincial pipelines are provincially regulated, while pipelines that cross a provincial or international border are federally regulated.  For more information on pipelines, please see Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Concerning Federally-Regulated Petroleum Pipelines in Canada.

A permit from the National Energy Board (NEB), Canada’s federal energy regulator, is required to export LNG from Canada. The NEB reviews export licence applications to ensure that the proposed volume of gas to be exported is surplus to Canadian requirements. Since 2011, 24 LNG projects have been issued long-term export licenses ranging between 20-40 years. More information on export licences is available on the NEB's website.

LNG Facilities and Safety Regulations

LNG facilities are classified as industrial sites and must meet all federal, provincial and municipal standards, codes and safety regulations. These regulations are constantly updated to ensure that the health, safety and security of the environment and Canadian public are protected. The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) has a specific standard for LNG production, storage and handling (CSA Standard CAN/CSA Z276-01). This standard establishes essential requirements for the design, installation and safe operation of LNG facilities.

Useful Links

These websites provide useful background information on LNG and LNG regulatory processes in Canada.