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M. Leblanc, L. Evans, P. Gardner, N. Scott and S. Wittaker
Garrad Hassan and CANWEA

CETC Number 2006-075 / 2006-04-28


This report provides a brief on work undertaken by Garrad Hassan (GH) on behalf of the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA). During 2005 it became apparent that Canadian provinces were operating largely in isolation along their own timeframes to develop interconnection requirements for wind turbines and wind farms. Particularly at the transmission level, 69kV and above, this was recognised as likely to lead to different sets or requirements with different rules and stringencies in each province whereas a clear benefit could be seen for the all stakeholders in a process of consultation leading to a unified and common set of interconnection requirements across Canada. GH was commissioned by CanWEA to examine these issues and propose a set of basic common interconnection requirements (a Base Code) and a path for CanWEA to take them forward with stakeholders, notably the provincial utilities and transmission system operators.

GH undertook a complete review of interconnection and grid integration issues in North America together with a more detailed examination of each Canadian province, its issues and progress towards a set of interconnection requirements for wind at transmission level. Following on from this GH were able to draw recommendations on a Base Code for CanWEA to adopt and how best to take it forward.

The Base Code proposed by GH incorporates the existing codes developed in Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and through the American Wind Energy Association, and adopts a structure allowing variability in requirements to accommodate both provincial differences and site specific differences. The Base Code contains ten items, some of which are mandatory requirements, some variable, and some of which are not enabled but are recommended for further development ahead of potential future implementation. The proposed Base Code is as follows:

  1. Frequency tolerance : mandatory
  2. Voltage tolerance : mandatory
  3. Power control : not a current requirement
  4. Reactive power capability/control : variable
  5. Voltage control : variable
  6. Frequency response : not a current requirement
  7. Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT) : mandatory but variable
  8. Power system stabilisers : not a current requirement
  9. Data Provision : mandatory
  10. Operational monitoring : mandatory

GH concluded that the CanWEA should take the Base Code implementation forward through a process of consultation with the Canadian utlities and transmission system operators within Canada, and in parallel through a similar process with AWEA and the North American Electricity Reliability Council (NERC). Time has been identified as of the essence due to ongoing developments throughout North America.

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