Battery chargers (uninterruptible power supplies)

April 2017

Technical bulletin on amending the standards

Webinar – April 2017

On March 4, 2017, Natural Resources Canada's (NRCan) Office of Energy Efficiency issued a Notice of Intent to amend Canada’s Energy Efficiency Regulations (the Regulations) to align uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), a type of battery charger, with standards in the United States. This technical bulletin has been released to initiate the consultation process and to collect stakeholder views on the requirements being considered for UPS.

Input received during this stage of the process will inform the development of the Amendment 15 proposal. In addition, NRCan will undertake a cost-benefit analysis using the best-available Canadian market data to assess the economic and environmental impacts of these new standards and to ensure Canadian consumers and businesses benefit from their implementation.

The Government of Canada intends to pre-publish a regulatory proposal in the Canada Gazette, Part I, within approximately two years of this bulletin.


In 2014, the Canada – United States Regulatory Cooperation Council committed to align new and updated energy efficiency standards and test standards for energy-using equipment, to the extent practicable and permitted by law.

NRCan had announced its intention to align battery chargers with the U.S. in Amendment 14.  The standards for UPS were announced later by the U.S. and a decision was made to include this expanded scope in Amendment 15.  On December 28, 2016, the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) issued a final rule, which added UPS to the scope of battery chargers and introduced minimum energy performance standards (MEPS).

NRCan is considering aligning with the MEPS, testing standard and manufacturing dates of the U.S. DOE. 

Product description

A UPS is a battery charger consisting of a combination of convertors, switches and an energy storage that make up a power system for maintaining the continuity of load power in the case of input power failure. In Amendment 14, UPS will be explicitly excluded from the definition of a battery charger. With Amendment 15, it is proposed that UPS be included in the scope and definition of a battery charger. For the purposes of this bulletin, a UPS utilizes a NEMA 1-15P or NEMA 5-15P input plug and  includes voltage and frequency dependent UPS (VFD UPS), voltage independent UPS (VI UPS) and voltage and frequency independent UPS (VFI UPS), but does not include back-up battery chargers.

NRCan is considering aligning with the U.S. definitions of UPS including VFD UPS, VI UPS, VFI UPS and back-up battery chargers.

Energy performance testing standard

NRCan is considering referencing the following energy performance testing standards:

  • Appendix Y to Subpart B, Part 430 of Title 10 to the United States Code of Federal Regulations, entitled Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Conservation of Battery Chargers
  • CSA C381.2‑17 - Test method for determining the energy efficiency of battery-charging systems and uninterruptible power supplies may be considered as an alternative test procedure when the revision is completed

Energy performance standard

NRCan is considering a minimum efficiency for UPS as found in U.S. DOE UPS final rule and table below:

Minimum energy performance standards being considered for uninterruptible power supplies (UPS)
Product type Nominal output power (Pnominal) (W) Minimum average load adjusted efficiency
Voltage and frequency dependent UPS (VFD UPS)1 ≤ 300
(-1.20×10-6)(Pnominal)2 + (7.17×10-4)(Pnominal) + 0.862
> 300 and ≤ 700
(-7.85×10-8)(Pnominal)2 + (1.01×10-4)(Pnominal) + 0.946
> 700 (-7.23×10-9)(Pnominal)2 + (7.52×10-6)(Pnominal) + 0.977
Voltage independent UPS (VI UPS)2 ≤ 300 (-1.20×10-6)(Pnominal)2 + (7.19×10-4)(Pnominal) + 0.863
> 300 and ≤ 700 (-7.67×10-8)(Pnominal)2 + (1.05×10-4)(Pnominal) + 0.947
> 700 (-4.62×10-9)(Pnominal)2 + (8.54×10-6)(Pnominal) + 0.979
Voltage and frequency independent (VFI UPS)3 ≤ 300 (-3.13×10-6)(Pnominal)2 + (1.96×10-3)(Pnominal) + 0.543
> 300 and ≤ 700 (-2.60×10-7)(Pnominal)2 + (3.65×10-4)(Pnominal) + 0.764
> 700 (-1.70×10-8)(Pnominal)2 + (3.85×10-5)(Pnominal) + 0.876

1 A voltage and frequency dependent UPS (VFD UPS) is a UPS that produces an AC output where the output voltage and frequency are dependent on voltage and frequency. It does not provide corrective functions like the other types of UPS.

2 A voltage independent UPS (VI UPS) is a UPS that produces an AC output within a specific tolerance band that is independent of under-voltage or over-voltage variations in the input voltage without depleting the stored energy source. The output frequency of VI UPS is dependent on the input frequency, similar to a voltage and frequency dependent system.

3 A voltage and frequency independent UPS (VFI UPS) is a UPS where the device remains in normal mode producing an AC output voltage and frequency that is independent of input voltage and frequency variations and protects the load against adverse effects from such variations without depleting the stored energy source.

Important dates

These regulations would come into force six months after the date of publication in the Canada Gazette, Part II.

NRCan is considering applying the new standards to UPS manufactured on or after February 13, 2019.

Labelling requirements

NRCan is not considering labelling requirements for UPS at this time.

Verification requirements

NRCan would require that these products or their packaging carry a third party verification mark indicating that the product meets the MEPS and that information to be reported has been verified.

The verification mark is the mark of a Standards Council of Canada accredited certification body that operates an energy efficiency certification program for the product.

Reporting requirements

Energy efficiency report

The energy efficiency report required for UPS would include the following information:

  • name of product (i.e. battery charger)
  • brand name
  • model number
  • name of the manufacturer
  • name of the certification body whose verification mark would be affixed to the product or its packaging
  • product type description (e.g. VFD UPS)
  • nominal output power, in watts (W)
  • nominal apparent power, in volt-amperes (VA)
  • nominal input voltage, in volts (V)
  • nominal output voltage, in volts (V)
  • efficiency at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of reference test load
  • average load adjusted efficiency (of the lowest and highest input dependency modes)

The Regulations apply to products imported or shipped inter-provincially for sale or lease in Canada. This report must be submitted, by the dealer, to NRCan before the product is imported into Canada or traded inter-provincially for the first time.

Import report

A dealer who imports these products into Canada would include the following information on the customs release document:

  • name of product (i.e. battery charger)
  • model number
  • brand name
  • address of the dealer importing the product
  • purpose for which the product is being imported (i.e. for sale or lease in Canada without modification; for sale or lease in Canada after modification to comply with energy efficiency standards; or for use as a component in a product being exported from Canada)

In Amendment 14, NRCan is proposing to remove import reporting requirements for some product categories when they are imported as components of another product. This exception would apply to battery chargers, including UPS.

Comments invited

The purpose of this bulletin is to provide stakeholders with the technical detail required to comment on the requirements under consideration for UPS. 

Additional information on Canada’s Energy Efficiency Regulations including a current list of Standards Council of Canada accredited certification bodies can be found on the Department’s website.

We welcome your comments by May 19, 2017. All correspondence should be forwarded to:

Natural Resources Canada
Office of Energy Efficiency
580 Booth Street
Ottawa, ON, K1A 0E4