The Government of Canada has signed the Paris agreement on climate change, committing to a reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 30% from 2005 levels by 2030, and has also adopted a target that 10% of new passenger vehicle sales be zero emissions vehicles (ZEVs) by 2025, 30% by 2030, and 100% by 2040. In order to achieve Canada’s GHG and ZEV goals, it will be necessary to ensure ready access to electric vehicle (EV) charging, particularly “at home” charging.
This report outlines considerations pertaining to establishing minimum requirements for EV charging infrastructure in buildings, and suggests strategies that Natural Resources Canada can
take to advance provinces’ and local governments’ adoption of minimum requirements for EV charging infrastructure for residential building uses.
Review of EV Charging Infrastructure Requirements
This report compares EV charging infrastructure requirements across a range of jurisdictions,
identifying four categories of EV charging infrastructure configurations used in such policies:
- Partial Infrastructure – Low. Such requirements specify installation of electrical conduit from an electrical room to a parking space. They do not require that electrical capacity be allocated to serve EV loads. They may require physical space in an electrical room so that electrical equipment can be retrofitted into the building to serve EV loads at a later date.
- Partial Infrastructure – High, also referred to as “EV Capable”. Such requirements specify that a given amount of electrical capacity should be available for EV charging, typically requiring space on electrical panels for EV loads calculated as a function of the number of parking spaces. “EV Capable” requirements also typically require that electrical conduit be installed, at least in difficult to retrofit areas, such as where conduit would pass through walls or floors.
- Energized electrical outlets, also referred to as “EV Ready”. Such requirements specify that parking spaces feature a complete electrical circuit terminating in an electrical outlet for the purpose of EV charging. Implementation of EVSE is not required.
- EV Service Equipment (EVSE) Installed.
100% “EV Ready” Residential Parking – Recommended Approach
It is recommended that NRCan support provinces and local governments in adopting requirements that all (100%) residential parking spaces be “EV Ready” and feature an energized electrical outlet capable of providing Level 2 charging. This configuration:
- Is consistent with Canada’s GHG and EV sales targets.
- Can have construction cost impacts comparable to other options, if multifamily buildings are designed for EVEMS. The extent of cost savings associated with designing for EVEMS is dependent on performance requirements for charging systems, as discussed below.
- Supports equity between residents, avoiding challenges with trading parking spaces or renovating for EV access.
- Avoids future retrofit costs to accommodate significant penetration of EV charging.
- Avoids challenges with specifying a fixed electrical panel size.
- Will be easier to enforce as part of building code or zoning/parking mechanisms than “EV Capable” capacity requirements.
EVEMS Performance Requirement Enabling 100% “EV Ready” Requirements
A key element of 100% “EV Ready” requirements are performance requirements for the use of
EVEMS systems. Performance requirements ensure that an adequate amount of power is provided to residential parking spaces to ensure a high likelihood that vehicles will be fully recharged overnight. Without such performance requirements, buildings could be designed for load sharing to too great an extent, providing an insufficient rate of charging. Performance requirements should be developed to be referenced in codes and/or zoning/parking requirement mechanisms.
Mechanisms to Require EV Charging Infrastructure
This report compares a variety of mechanisms that could potentially require EV charging infrastructure in new and existing buildings. These include:
- The National Building Code of Canada (NBC).
- The National Energy Code for Buildings (NECB).
- The Canadian Electrical Code (CEC).
- Local zoning/parking requirements.
- Provincial legislation mandating zoning/parking to require EV charging infrastructure.
If you wish to receive a copy of the full report, please email: NRCan.alternative_fuels-alternative_fuels.RNCan@canada.ca.