Understanding and monitoring Canada’s water is fundamental to the responsible management of this precious resource. Freshwater covers almost 9% of Canada, while wetlands cover an additional 14%. Satellites are considered to be the most promising means of monitoring the seasonal changes in both freshwater and the state of wetlands on a regional and national scale. Satellites have also proven effective at characterizing the vegetation and soil characteristics important in the monitoring of Canada’s groundwater.
Canada Centre for Mapping and Earth Observation scientists-CCMEO (formerly Canada Centre for Remote Sensing-CCRS) have developed techniques to use satellite SAR to map the extent of surface water. These techniques are now being regularly used to map the extent of seasonal flooding in Canada and abroad:
Today, new techniques to measure surface water level from current and future spaceborne SARs are being developed and validated.
Satellite data have been combined with surface measurements to identify and manage community water resources in Canada’s North.
Advanced SAR-based techniques are being developed and used to help characterize wetlands.
These techniques are being further developed to measure the transformation of Canada’s peatlands with current and future SAR satellites.
Satellite remote sensing also supports the characterization and monitoring of Canada’s aquifers by providing surface information useful to model and predict the availability of groundwater within the nations’ watersheds.
The EALCO model (Ecological Assimilation of Land and Climate Observations ) developed at the Canada Centre for Mapping and Earth Observation assimilates this information to simulate the water cycle and assess aquifer recharge.