This report is about how and why Canada’s climate has changed and what changes are projected for the future. Led by Environment and Climate Change Canada, this document is the first of a series to be released as part of Canada in a Changing Climate: Advancing our Knowledge for Action. It documents changes across Canada in temperature, precipitation, snow, ice, permafrost and freshwater availability as well as in Canada’s three oceans.
Scientists from Environment and Climate Change Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Natural Resources Canada, and university experts collaborated to produce Canada’s Changing Climate Report. This first document of the series provides the climate-science foundation for upcoming reports, which will address the impacts of climate change on our communities, environment and economy, and how we are adapting.
The digital interactive version of the report is available at www.ChangingClimate.ca/CCCR2019. The report is also available in PDF format, in its full version and by chapter, at the links below.
For media inquiries, please contact Environment and Climate Change Canada Media Relations.
- Headline Statements (PDF, 101 KB)
- Executive Summary (PDF, 3.73 MB)
- Full Report (PDF, 34.3 MB)
- Chapter 1: About This Report (PDF, 1.99 MB)
- Chapter 2: Understanding Observed Global Climate Change (PDF, 2.33 MB)
- Chapter 3: Modelling Future Climate Change (PDF, 2.71 MB)
- Chapter 4: Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Across Canada (PDF, 9.90 MB)
- Chapter 5: Changes in Snow, Ice and Permafrost Across Canada (PDF, 3.82 MB)
- Chapter 6: Changes in Freshwater Availability Across Canada (PDF, 4.89 MB)
- Chapter 7: Changes in Oceans Surrounding Canada (PDF, 6.60 MB)
- Chapter 8: Changes in Canada’s Regions in a National and Global Context (PDF, 2.10 MB)
- Definitions (PDF, 2.22 MB)
- Table of Key Messages (PDF, 1.49 MB)
Canada’s Changing Climate Report – Spokespersons
Nathan Gillet, Spokesperson for CCCR Chapter 2, Understanding Observed Global Climate Change
Nathan Gillett is a senior research scientist with Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Climate Research Division. His research focuses on understanding the causes of observed climate change. He is a Coordinating Lead Author of the chapter on human influence on climate in the upcoming IPCC Sixth Assessment Report. Nathan received his PhD in atmospheric physics from the University of Oxford in 2001.
Greg Flato, Spokesperson for CCCR Chapter 3, Modelling Future Climate Change
Greg Flato is a senior research scientist with Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Climate Research Division. He has worked on the development of a series of global climate models used to simulate historical climate variations and project future climate change. He is an elected Vice Chair of the IPCC’s Working Group I and was a Coordinating Lead Author of the model evaluation chapter in the IPCC Fifth Assessment. Dr Flato received his BSc and MSc in Civil Engineering from the University of Alberta, and a PhD in Engineering Science from Dartmouth College, USA.
Xuebin Zhang, Spokesperson for CCCR Chapter 4, Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Across Canada
Xuebin Zhang is a senior research scientist with Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Climate Research Division. His main research focus is past and future changes in weather and climate extremes. He was a lead author for the IPCC Special Report Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation and the IPCC Working Group I Fifth Assessment Report. He is a Coordinating Lead Author of the climate extremes chapter in the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report. Dr. Zhang has a background in engineering hydrology and received a PhD degree in Physics (Climatology) from University of Lisbon, Portugal.
Chris Derksen, Spokesperson for CCCR Chapter 5, Changes in Snow, Ice and Permafrost Across Canada
Chris Derksen is a research scientist with Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Climate Research Division, and holds an adjunct faculty position with the Department of Geography and Environmental Management at University of Waterloo. His research focuses on the use of satellite derived datasets and climate models to understand how snow cover and sea ice interact with the global climate system. Chris is a lead author of the upcoming International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Oceans and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate. Chris received his Ph.D from the University of Waterloo in 2001.
Barrie Bonsal, Spokesperson for Chapter 6: Changes in Freshwater Availability Across Canada
Barrie Bonsal is a senior research scientist with the Watershed Hydrology and Ecology Research Division of Environment and Climate Change Canada and an adjunct professor in the Department of Geography at the University of Saskatchewan. His research examines the impacts of past climate variability and extremes (including droughts and floods), and projected future climate change on the freshwater resources of Canada. Barrie has contributed to past national assessments of climate change impacts and adaptation, and to the international Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic assessment. He obtained a PhD in Physical Geography from the University of Saskatchewan in 1996.
Blair Greenan, Spokesperson for CCCR Chapter 7: Changes in Oceans Surrounding Canada
Blair is a research scientist at Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), based at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography in Halifax. His research group focuses on ocean stressors, ranging from marine oil spills to climate change effects such as ocean acidification. He is the Scientific Director for the Argo Canada program, which contributes to the International Argo program in advancing global real-time observations of the ocean. Recently, Blair’s research has focused on developing climate change adaptation tools related to coastal infrastructure and fisheries management. Blair received his Ph.D. from the Department of Physics at the University of Toronto.
Elizabeth Bush, Project lead and spokesperson for development of Canada’s Changing Climate Report as a contribution to the national assessment.
Elizabeth Bush is the project lead for development of Canada’s Changing Climate Report. She is a senior climate science advisor with Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Climate Research Division. She works at the interface of science and policy on climate change, helping to communicate climate change science and integrate science into decision-making. She has participated in a number of national and international science assessments of climate change and air quality. Elizabeth received a Masters of Science (Biology) degree and a Master of Arts (Environmental Studies) degree from the University of Toronto.
Marjorie Shepherd, Spokesperson for development of Canada’s Changing Climate Report as a contribution to the national assessment.
Marjorie Shepherd is the Director of Environment and Climate Change Canada’s Climate Research Division (CRD). This research group of approximately 110 people spans greenhouse gas observations, climate processes and cryosphere research, attribution and detection of climate trends and variability, development of earth system models for global and regional climate projections, and climate impact studies. The dual focus of developing scientific tools and advice for adaptation and mitigation guide the priorities of this research program. Ms. Shepherd received a Master of Science degree in Atmospheric Chemistry, from York University.
Daniel Peters, French spokesperson, Chapter 6, Changes in Freshwater Availability Across Canada
Daniel Peters is a research scientist with the Watershed Hydrology and Ecology Research Division of Environment and Climate Change Canada. He is an Associate Professor in the Department of Geography at the University of Victoria where he taught Hydrology for 10+ years and supervises Graduate student thesis work. His research examines the effects of climate variability/change and development (eg, flow regulation, water abstraction) on the hydrology of river, lake, wetland, and delta systems in Canada. Daniel is an Associate Editor of the Canadian Water Resources Journal. He obtained a PhD in Watershed Ecosystems from Trent University in 2003.
Denis Gilbert, French spokesperson, Chapter 7, Changes in Oceans Surrounding Canada
Denis Gilbert is a physical oceanographer who contributed to the Oceans chapter of CCCR. His main areas of expertise are ocean currents, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and sea level. He completed a B.Sc. in Physics at the University of Québec at Chicoutimi in 1985, and a Ph.D. in physical oceanography at Dalhousie University in 1990. He has been working for Fisheries and Oceans Canada since 1991.
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