Forest composition across Canada
Canada’s forests contain many tree species. Grouping species according to genus makes it easier to see where trees of different types are dominant.
For example, moving northward from Canada’s most densely populated areas in Ontario and Quebec, one passes first through maple-dominated forests, then through birch, and on into the spruces (including black spruce, white spruce and others) that dominate the boreal zone, a broad sweep of land from Yukon to Newfoundland and Labrador.
The forests around Canada’s prairies are dominated by poplars (including trembling aspen and balsam poplar), but these species can also be found almost anywhere in Canada. Pines, too, are common throughout Canada, but are especially dominant in areas where forest fires have occurred frequently.
The West Coast is dominated by forests of hemlocks, cedars and Douglas-firs, whereas the forests of the East Coast are heavily mixed and species rich.
Sources and information
- Beaudoin, A., Bernier, P., et al. 2014. Mapping attributes of Canada’s forests at moderate resolution through kNN and MODIS imagery. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 44: 521–532.
- Farrar, J.L. 1995. Trees in Canada. Ottawa: Fitzhenry & Whiteside.
- Silhouettes reproduced from Trees in Canada by J.L. Farrar, 1995.
- National Forest Inventory. Maps – Forest composition across Canada
- Additional information can be found at:
- Beaudoin, A., Bernier, P., et al. 2018. Tracking forest attributes across Canada between 2001 and 2011 using a k nearest neighbors mapping approach applied to MODIS imagery. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 48: 85–93.
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