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Forest composition across Canada

Small-scale raster map showing forest composition across Canada. Forest areas are identified based on the ten most-common kinds of trees (genera) found in Canada, described below.
Map summary

Small-scale raster map showing the area of forest in Canada, with the type of tree found in any area identified by colour. The trees are colour-coded by genera, including: cedar (Thuja), pine (Pinus), hemlock (Tsuga), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga), poplar (Populus), maple (Acer), birch (Betula), fir (Abies), spruce (Picea) and “unknown or other”.

A silhouette is shown of one species for each genus, to provide an indication of the shape and size of trees found in different parts of Canada. The map also shows the density of forests across Canada. Faded colours represent less densely forested areas.

Canada’s forests contain many tree species. Grouping species according to genus makes it easier to see where trees of different types are dominant.

For example, moving northward from Canada’s most densely populated areas in Ontario and Quebec, one passes first through maple-dominated forests, then through birch, and on into the spruces (including black spruce, white spruce and others) that dominate the boreal zone, a broad sweep of land from Yukon to Newfoundland and Labrador.

The forests around Canada’s prairies are dominated by poplars (including trembling aspen and balsam poplar), but these species can also be found almost anywhere in Canada. Pines, too, are common throughout Canada, but are especially dominant in areas where forest fires have occurred frequently.

The West Coast is dominated by forests of hemlocks, cedars and Douglas-firs, whereas the forests of the East Coast are heavily mixed and species rich.

Sources and information

Table of contents — The State of Canada's Forests Report

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