ARCHIVED - Key Result 2: Canadians are taking action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change

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Final Progress Report on NRCan's Sustainable Development Strategy - Moving Forward

Summary

Of the 49 Targets:
  • 36 targets have been completed.
  • 7 targets are in progress (on schedule to be completed with the timeframe outlined in the target).
  • 4 targets have been terminated (these targets are no longer achievable due to a change in focus).
  • 1 target was revised (to reflect operational conditions and to ensure their successful completion).
  • 1 has not been completed within the timeframe of the SDS.
Snapshot of Some Accomplishments

NRCan provided a range of tools and information catalyze emissions reduction in all sectors of Canadian society, which have ranged from average energy savings for homes that undertook a post renovation house audits, to the establishment of agreements under the Market Incentive Program to support distributors of electricity from emerging renewable sources in their marketing efforts. By recognizing the importance of technology and innovation as part of its emissions reduction strategy, NRCan is renowned for its technical expertise in advancing the development and demonstration of new technologies.

  • In 2005, Canada successfully hosted the 11th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention (UNFCCC) on Climate Change (COP11) and the first Meeting of the Parties to Kyoto Protocol (COP/MOP1). NRCan, Environment, Foreign Affairs and CIDA worked closely to develop robust negotiating positions on technology, adaptation and future long-term cooperation. Under the Canadian presidency, negotiations were launched for the second commitment period (post 2012) on long-term cooperation for commitments by Annex I parties in the Kyoto Protocol, and the informal dialogue under the UNFCCC. One of the successes of COP11 was the result of an NRCan workshop that developed the "Guidebook on Preparing Technology Transfer Projects for Funding", which is a helpful guide for developing countries to access new technologies.
  • NRCan provided policy advice on the importance of the development of more effective and efficient energy and environmental technologies. As a result, the Government of Canada provided $550 million in three instalments to establish Sustainable Development Technology Canada, with the mandate to develop and demonstrate novel technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air, water and soil quality. This effort is expected to result in the increased deployment of eco-efficient technologies in the Canadian marketplace.
  • NRCan provided policy advice on the effectiveness of policies and programs in reducing GHG emissions and on allocating related funding. As a result, the Government of Canada announced an investment of $ 2 billion in a new suite of ecoEnergy Initiatives in January 2007. This will help reduce emissions of GHG and air pollutants, improve energy efficiency, increase the production and use of renewable energy, and increase the deployment of eco-efficient technologies.
  • NRCan’s Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI) was successful in supporting 924 MW of new wind energy capacity and 22 projects in 8 provinces. The program created more interest in wind power in Canada with more than 1400 MW of wind energy capacity installed by end of 2006. WPPI also complemented wind energy measures in provinces. The program has contributed to reduced emissions of GHG and pollutants, increased production and use of renewable energies. The Government announced in January 2007 an additional investment of $1.5 billion to further support wind power and other low-impact renewable energy sources for electricity generation.
  • The Department’s programs to improve energy efficiency and increase the production and use of alternative transportation fuels contribute to progress in key trends in Canada’s energy use. From 1990 to 2004 (the latest year for which data are available), Canada’s energy efficiency improved by an estimated 14 percent. For more information, please consult Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada(oee.nrcan.gc.ca/trends06). Key performance information for energy efficiency programs is provided in the department’s annual Report to Parliament under the Energy Efficiency Act(www.oee.nrcan.gc.ca/parliament 05-06).
  • NRCan has assembled a body of research in order to expand our understanding of sustainable development and climate change impacts. Past and ongoing projects related to increasing Canadians’ understanding of the vulnerabilities associated to climate change impacts include:
    • collecting and assessing data on the business approach to sustainable development, and developing policy initiatives that support successful approaches (i.e. climate change scenarios (High-resolution climate change scenarios for North America,http://warehouse.pfc.forestry.ca/glfc/26780.pdf);
    • assessing the socioeconomic effects of climate change on the Canadian forest sector and to evaluate the economic costs and benefits of alternative adaptation strategies (http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/subsite/ssrg/climatechange);
    • disseminating information to targeted audiences with respect to NRCan research and approaches on how Canadians can take action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change.
  • NRCan-CFS is using a world-class computer simulation model (CFS-CBM3) to estimate how much carbon is stored in forest ecosystems and how much is exchanged between these ecosystems and the atmosphere. The model regularly generates carbon budget information in meeting Canada's international reporting obligations. Looking to the future, this modeling tool developed by the CFS will facilitate the quantitative assessment and verification of carbon offsets (i.e. afforestation projects for compliance with emissions targets) and provincial trading systems (e.g. Alberta and British Columbia). Furthermore, the model will be used to assess the impact of various forest management options on carbon storage. An operational-scale version of the model is being made available to forest managers across Canada through the internet. CFS is also helping Russian and Mexican national forestry organizations to adopt the carbon budget model. Finally, the model is also being used to inform NRCan and its partners of the impact of the mountain pine beetle epidemic on forest carbon dynamics.
  • In December 2006, the Government of Nunavut, with support from NRCan’s Enhancing Resilience in a Changing Climate (ERCC) Program and the Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research Network (C-CIARN) Coastal Zone, hosted a 3-day workshop in Iqaluit titled Adaptation Action in Arctic Communities. The workshop, which was opened by the Premier of Nunavut, brought together over 50 territorial government, non-government, Inuit and community stakeholders to discuss and provide input into the development of a Nunavut Adaptation Plan. ERCC scientists conducting community-based climate change research in Nunavut focused on coastal issues, potable freshwater resources, and vegetation mapping were active participants giving presentations and participating in breakout sessions. The result from this work for ERCC was that it: 1) provided Nunavummiut input and guidance into upcoming ERCC field work, 2) identified two case study communities (Iqaluit and Clyde River) to conduct ERCC integrated research, and 3) helped position ESS research so it will be able to influence the development of the Nunavut Adaptation Plan. The strong stakeholder relationships developed at this workshop will empower Nunavut communities to make scientifically informed decisions that reduce vulnerability to climate change.

The above-mentioned work conducted by NRCan has directly and indirectly contributed to a decrease of greenhouse gas emissions in a period of strong economic growth. For instance, Canada’s emissions intensity, expressed as carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion per unit of GDP, declined by 12 percent between 1990 and 2004.

More information on NRCan’s progress for Key Result #2 can be found in the tables below.

Action 2.1: Advance policy and dialogue to address climate change
Number Target Status Achievements / Next Steps
2.1.1.1 By 2005, evaluate effectiveness of policies and programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Completed The action is now completed.  NRCan participated to a government-wide review of climate change programs during the summer of 2005.
2.1.1.2 By 2005, report internationally on Canada’s progress in achieving its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. Completed The report was submitted to the United Nations in early 2007 through Environment Canada and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade.
2.1.1.3 By 2006, advise and support the Government of Canada in deciding the allocation of the remaining funding from Budget 2003. Completed The Government announced a suite of ecoENERGY Initiatives in January 2007.
2.1.2.1 By 2005, construct a Canadian negotiating position on climate change. Completed In 2005, Canada hosted the 11th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 11) and the historic 1st Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (COP/MOP 1) in Montreal. Leading up to and throughout international negotiations, the core departments on international climate change (NRCan, Environment Canada, Foreign Affairs and CIDA) worked closely together to develop robust negotiation positions on key Canadian priorities such as technology, adaptation, future long term cooperation and Kyoto implementation. Consequently, Canada was a major contributor to the success of COP 11/MOP 1 which resulted in the launch of two tracks to discuss the future post 2012 which includes all major emitters, Kyoto rulebook implementation and streamlining and favourable negotiation decisions for Canadian priorities.  In addition, NRCan led and coordinated substantial effort in the parallel Conference program to showcase Canada’s leadership in areas such as energy efficiency, cleaner energy technologies, carbon capture and storage, forestry and earth sciences.
2.1.3.1 By 2004, sign memoranda of understanding with interested provinces and territories. Completed A Memorandum of Understanding with the Government of Ontario was signed on May 21, 2004.  This brings to four the number of signed memoranda given existing memoranda with the Governments of Nunavut, Prince Edward Island and Manitoba.  Discussions are proceeding with other interested provinces and territories.  Two other memoranda are expected to be signed in the near future.
2.1.3.2 By 2005, have the Opportunities Envelope initiative operational and providing funding towards provincial and territorial action. Completed This action is completed. The Opportunities Envelope became fully operational in 2005 and provided funding towards provincial and territorial action. The program ended March 31, 2007.
2.1.4.1 By 2005, develop recommended options to attract investment for additional plantations. Completed NRCan has investigated international experiences to assist in the evaluation of policy options to attract investment into Canadian plantations.  The policy research was completed in 2005 and developed recommended options to help attractive investment in new plantations.
2.1.5.1 By 2005, establish, at minimum, one Clean Development Mechanism-Joint Implementation (CDM-JI) pilot project. Terminated The Government of Canada has put forward its clean air agenda that addresses climate change by emphasizing domestic actions.  Demonstration projects under the Kyoto Protocol’s Joint Implementation or Clean Development Mechanism may be considered once the Government’s climate change program is finalized over the coming years.  The Government recognizes the importance of reducing greenhouse gas emissions domestically, while working with other countries to address the global nature of climate change.
2.1.6.1 By 2005, complete scoping papers to method development for monitoring and assessments of the potential of biological and geological carbon storage. Completed Occurrences offshore Nova Scotia, and a successful preliminary drilling phase of a long term production test well at the Mallik site in the Mackenzie Delta was completed.
2.1.6.2 By 2005, contribute to the development of the national Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Program report on Canada’s vulnerability to climate change. Completed Staff of Enhancing Resilience in a Changing Climate (ERCC) provided input to the development of the national-scale impacts and adaptation assessment, and program outputs are cited in the final report. The completed assessment report, that involved more than 100 authors, will be released by Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Directorate (CCIAD) by end of 2007.
2.1.6.3 By 2006, with municipal and/or provincial partners, produce and disseminate plain language reports that describe impacts of climate change and best practices for municipal response to climate change. Completed Reports released.
Action 2.2: Achieve emissions reductions through energy efficiency, renewable and alternative energy, and carbon sequestration
Number Target Status Achievements / Next Steps
2.2.1.1 By 2007, establish and maintain awareness levels at 80%. Completed Results from the 2006 McAllister Opinion research "Mapping the global mind" tracking, indicates that the majority of Canadians continue to have high awareness levels of Climate Change and express concern about the environment (86%).
2.2.1.2 By 2007, achieve a 30% increase in participation in outreach activities. Completed NRCan has achieved its goal of a 30% increase in outreach activities by 2007. For example, in 2005-06 the Office of Energy Efficiency’s web site visits increased by 53% over the previous year.
2.2.2.1 By 2007, 20% average energy savings for homes that undertake a second, post renovation EnerGuide for Houses audit. Completed As of September 2006, the average energy savings for homes that undertake a second, post renovation EnerGuide for Houses audit is 28%. As of September 2006, GHG emission reductions under EnerGuide for Houses totalled 0.8Mt, the target set for March 2007.
2.2.2.2 By 2010, all new housing at EnerGuide for Houses 80-R-2000 level. In progress

In 2006-07, the EnerGuide for Houses Retrofit Incentive was wound down with NRCan processing more than 105,000 grants. The average energy savings for homes that carried out renovations was 28%. Carbon dioxide reductions of 902,000 tonnes were achieved over the life of the program, surpassing the target of 800,000 tonnes.

The EcoEnergy Retrofit was launched on April 1, 2007. ecoENERGY Retrofit grants apply to a host of measures that reduce energy consumption and provide for a cleaner environment, from increasing insulation to upgrading a furnace.

2.2.3.1 By 2006, improve average energy intensity by 20% in retrofitted commercial and institutional buildings which have received financial incentives. Completed Completed.
2.2.3.2 By 2007, ensure that 10% of all new construction receive contributions from the Commercial Building Incentive Program. Completed Complete. As of March 31, 2007, 231 contribution agreements were signed by the Commercial Building Incentive Program, representing approximately 15% of new construction in Canada during the previous year.
2.2.4.1 By 2008, installation of 1000 new solar thermal and biomass combustion systems on Canadian business and institutional facilities. In progress As of March 31, 2006, under the Renewable Energy Deployment Initiative, 426 industrial, commercial and institutional solar and biomass heating systems have been installed, and 6 solar domestic air and water heating pilot initiatives have resulted in 368 installed solar heating systems. The program was completed on March 31, 2007; however, program data for fiscal year 2006-2007 is not yet available.
2.2.4.2 By 2008, installation of 6,000 new ground source heat-pump systems on Canadian business and institutional facilities. In progress In progress. In 2006, the geoexchange industry installed 1,480 ground source heat pumps. This is up from 1,242 units in 2005 and 1,270 units in 2004, for a three year total of 3,992 units.
2.2.5.1 By 2010, achieve an average fuel consumption reduction of 25% in the 2010 new vehicle fleet from current corporate average fuel consumption standards through the negotiation of an agreement with automobile manufacturers for a voluntary fuel consumption target (or set of targets). In progress On track - satisfactory progress continues to be made towards the 2010 target.
2.2.5.2 By 2010, expand fuel ethanol production and use in Canada, contributing significantly to Canada’s target of having at least 35% of the gasoline supply contain 10% ethanol. In progress Through the Ethanol Expansion Program (EEP), NRCan increased renewable transportation fuel production and use in Canada contributing to reductions in transportation-related GHG emissions. In 2006-2007, four new ethanol plants that were allocated $51 million contributions under the EEP, were completed and started producing fuel ethanol. These four plants added 480 million litres to the Canadian annual ethanol production capacity that was 200 million litres. Four more plants under the EEP started construction in Spring 2007 with a total annual production capacity of 390 million litres. As of March 31, 2007 the total ethanol production in Canada is sufficient to allow for 16% of the gasoline supply to contain 10% ethanol, which is 30% of the 2010 target.
2.2.6.1 By 2005, initiate 100 industrial energy audits. Completed 141 audits were initiated in fiscal year 2004-2005.
2.2.6.2 By 2005, recruit 45 new companies as Industrial Energy Innovators. Completed 132 companies were recruited in fiscal year 2004-2005.
2.2.6.3 By 2006, all CIPEC task forces to have targets and action plans. Completed Completed.
2.2.7.1 By 2006, establish five new agreements under the Market Incentive Program to support distributors of electricity from emerging renewable sources in their marketing efforts. Completed Completed.
2.2.7.2 By 2007, install 1,000 MW of new wind energy capacity in Canada. In progress Currently, wind energy capacity in Canada is 1,459 MW.  As of March 31, 2007, the Wind Power Production Incentive program has supported 924 MW of this capacity, representing 22 projects that have been commissioned or are under construction.
2.2.8.1 By 2006, complete agreements to purchase 450 GWh of electricity from renewable sources. Not completed Under the initiative to Purchase Electricity from Renewable Resources, the total annual federal purchases are approximately 147 gigawatt hours per year.  This includes about 90 gigawatt hours of electricity from emerging renewable energy sources that continue to be generated in Ontario through an agreement with Energy Ottawa, and 57.4 gigawatt hours of electricity for federal facilities in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Prince Edward Island.  While the program’s funding expired as of March 31, 2007, the administration of these agreements will continue until the Saskatchewan agreement expires in 2012.
Action 2.3: Establish greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets for key industry sectors
Number Target Status Achievements / Next Steps
2.3.1.1 Through 2004–2006, NRCan will complete memoranda/letters of understanding with large final emitting companies that have stepped forward and meet covenant eligibility criteria. Terminated The Large Final Emitters Group is now under the mandate of Environment Canada.
2.3.1.2 By 2006, work will proceed on the framework legislation and associated policy development, including development of a domestic emissions trading system that provides access to Canadian offsets and international permits and credits. Terminated The Large Final Emitters Group is now under the mandate of Environment Canada.
Action 2.4 Undertake science and technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and improve Canada’s ability to further mitigate and adapt to climate change impacts
Number Target Status Achievements / Next Steps
2.4.1.1 By 2006, establish a science and technology foundation to support the development and demonstration of promising greenhouse gas reduction technologies. Completed Completed. The science and technology foundation has been established.  Three agreements were signed with Sustainable Development Technology Canada that provided the Foundation with the funding to meet the objective, the first one of $100 million in 2001 to support development of greenhouse gases abatement technologies, the second of $250 million in 2004 to provide additional resources for the same technology areas, and the third one in 2005 of $200 million for technologies related to clean waters and clean soils.  The SDTC’s activities and achievements are reported yearly in the Departmental Performance Report and the Minister is briefed regularly on progress made.
2.4.2.1 By 2005, establish fast growing plantation demonstrations in five regional areas. Completed At the end of 2005 over 6,000 ha of fast-growing plantation sites have been established and this work is now complete.
2.4.2.2 By 2004, complete evaluation and identification of gaps in knowledge and products. Completed Gaps were identified through the Science Information Collection process. CFS science staff completed this in December 2004.
2.4.2.3 By 2006, produce materials and new knowledge to address gaps in information. Completed Functionality of the Canadian Forest Service (CFS)-Afforestation Feasibility Model (AFM) and the Land Suitability Model has been expanded to include willow, back walnut, Norway spruce and red pine.  The model will continue to be expanded to include species and management practices that were not included under target 2.4.2.3.  The CFS-CBM3 (Carbon Budget Model) will continue to be developed in order to provide increased functionality and usability to users.
2.4.3.1 By 2005, characterize Canadian gas hydrates occurrences, their resource potential and their development risks. Completed Significant progress was made toward the understanding of the physical properties and distribution of gas hydrates in Canada, and a revised estimate of gas hydrate resources in the Mackenzie Delta and Beaufort Sea were completed. Key geophysical tools and techniques for gas hydrate exploration are being developed. Drilling and mapping of methane vent structures on the pacific oceanic margin, mapping and sampling of inferred gas hydrate occurrences offshore Nova Scotia, and a successful preliminary drilling phase of a long term production test well at the Mallik site in the Mackenzie Delta was completed.
2.4.3.2 By 2005, disseminate information to targeted industry and government audiences in various formats. Completed Through a consistent communications effort, the Canadian petroleum industry is now increasingly aware of, and monitoring, this potential natural gas resource. The National Energy Board and key Canadian industrial groups, including the Petroleum Technology Alliance of Canada, now recognize gas hydrates as a potential part of Canada’s future gas supply, cognizant that unconventional gas hydrate resources typically occur where there is currently no transportation infrastructure to bring the gas to market.
2.4.4.1 By 2005, develop recommendations for new specifications and standards dealing with the use of supplementary cementing materials in concrete exposed to de-icing salts. Completed A comparison between the field and the laboratory results has confirmed the adequateness of the procedure developed by Bureau de Normalisation du Quebec (BNQ) to better evaluate the de-icing salt scaling resistance of concrete made with supplementary cementing materials (SCM).  In June 2006, ASTM subcommittee C09.67 was presented with a draft of an adaptation of the BNQ scaling test. This test will be evaluated by the committee.
2.4.4.2 By 2006, develop technical data on de-icing salt scaling resistance of concrete incorporating supplementary cementing materials (SCM). Completed A visual evaluation of sidewalk sections made with different types of concrete after four winters has generally shown good performance for the control and the slag concretes, acceptable performance for the fly ash concretes and poor performance for the concrete made with the ternary blended cement (consisting of cement, fly ash, and silica fume).  Both ASTM and BNQ laboratory tests were able to detect the better performance of slag concretes over that of fly ash concretes.  However, the comparison between the field and the laboratory results has confirmed the severity of the ASTM procedure and the adequateness of the BNQ procedure to better evaluate the de-icing salt scaling resistance of concrete made with SCM.
2.4.5.1 By December of each year (2004, 2005, 2006) develop technical data on effectiveness of high-calcium fly ash on alkali aggregate reaction (AAR). Completed The testing required to assess the reliability of accelerated test methods was completed in May 2007. The final client report providing recommendations on safe proportions of various types of fly ash to be used to control AAR and on new accelerated-curing methods for AAR was issued in September 2007.
2.4.5.2 By 2007, develop recommendations for new specifications and standards dealing with the use of such ashes in concrete incorporating reactive aggregates (e.g. CSA A23.1/2; ASTM standard to be developed). Completed Recommendations for new specifications and standards dealing with the use of such ashes in concrete were made, and are incorporated in the final report issued in September 2007.
2.4.6.1 By 2004, make recommendations to the US Auto Materials Partnership regarding suitability of various coatings for the prevention of corrosion of magnesium alloys. Completed CANMET-MTL is an active member of the US Auto Materials Partnership - Structural Cast Magnesium Development (USAMP-SCMD) program and has participated in making an engine cradle, and leading the work on assessing coatings and corrosion testing for Magnesium (Mg) in automotive applications.  Top-performing coatings were selected and a new washer material was developed at CANMET-MTL. Creep properties of three automotive Mg alloys (AM50, AE44 and AJ62x) were investigated at different loads and temperatures and under tension and compression. An investigation on microstructure and secondary phase particles of as-cast and deformed high pressure die casting (HPDC) and low pressure die casting (LPDC) AM50 alloys was completed. Strong susceptibility of AE44 and AM50 alloys to stress corrosion cracking was discovered and reported to USAMP-SCMD project team. The three-layer coating system designed by the MTL team was found to increase cycles-to-failure life in salt solution to the same magnitude as in air. MTL team contributed on many key aspects during the development of the Corvette Mg engine cradle, now being made by Meridian Technologies.
2.4.6.2 By 2005, explore the feasibility of casting titanium for automotive parts. Completed The chemical composition and the mechanical properties of the metal-powder injection-molded samples were examined. The samples meet the ASTM standard for the same alloy produced by the conventional wrought processing method.
2.4.6.3 By 2006, produce prototypes of automotive components made in aluminium and magnesium alloys. In conjunction with AUTO21 Centres of Excellence, research the production of alloys 319 and 356. Target revised CANMET-MTL is investigating three aluminum alloys from which to fabricate the next generation of lightweight diesel engines. Gasoline engines and small diesel engines are currently made from aluminum alloys 319 and 356. Larger diesel engines will require alloys suitable for higher operating temperatures and pressures. Work on alloy 328, which we discovered has better fatigue properties than alloy 319, is temporarily deferred because it is more costly than alloy 319. None of the modifications tried on the standard 356 alloy improved that alloy’s high-temperature properties. Additional development work to improve the high-temperature properties for alloy 356 is ongoing. A second research task investigating the bonding mechanisms for various reinforcements and their surface treatments under different casting conditions is ongoing.
2.4.6.4 By 2006, work out the processing parameters for multiphase, ultra-fine grain steels. Completed Toward the development of lighter-weight steels for automotive applications, processing parameters were established and two twin-induced plasticity steels were developed. The materials have high-strength and high ductility.
2.4.6.5 By 2007, develop in-house process capability for the warm forming of magnesium and aluminium alloys, as well as hydroforming of aluminium and steel tubes. Completed A die was fabricated to assess magnesium tube gas-forming under plane strain deformation. The new die will complement a die previously fabricated for producing parts under axial feeding. Warm-forming data were obtained under various processing conditions. Test samples were provided to project partners for characterization and modelling of the gas-forming process. The information is intended to be used for optimizing process and die design for magnesium tube gas-forming.
2.4.7.1 By 2005, publish digital libraries of landscape sensitivity appropriate to the requirements of other government departments for priority regions. Terminated Extensive digital mapping of coastal flooding risk and erosion hazards for the Northwest Territories and eastern Canada was completed and partially published with other government department partners. Permafrost instability modelling and mapping was partially completed in the Mackenzie Valley. The project was terminated when the program it was under, Reducing Canada's Vulnerability to Climate Change, was renewed as Enhancing Resilience in a Changing Climate (ERCC). This program was redesigned with a new logic map and the project was not continued.
2.4.7.2 By 2005, complete quantitative assessment of terrestrial and coastal response to climate change in key physiographic zones (permafrost, coastal and near-shore environment, forests). Completed Substantive results and papers published or submitted on a number of aspects, including permafrost, glacier mass-balance, coastal, and forest response to climate change. Results being assimilated into planning process at regional and local levels and incorporated in the international arena through contributions to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report and citation of work.
2.4.7.3 By 2006, prepare national assessment of landscape and forest ecosystem response to climate change (two synthesis reports). Completed Two synthesis reports on landscape and forest ecosystem response to climate change were completed.
2.4.8.1 By 2007, NRCan will provide decision makers with national hazard inventories and assessments, improved hazard forecasting, an upgraded earthquake and geomagnetic monitoring system, and improved reporting capacity (including custom emergency maps and images) in response to complex crisis events and emergencies. In progress

Western Canada Geohazards Assessment: The B.C. "Sea to Sky" landslide inventory assessment, being carried out in consultation with Squamish-Lillooet District officials, is progressing for provision to the Risk Assessment Methods Project. Two draft documents, pertinent to the design of the methodology and tools and progress to date, are being reviewed. Landslide investigations in Alberta and BC are already providing hazard mitigation information to municipalities and critical infrastructure operators. W.R.T. tsunami investigations, recent output has provided advice to BC Provincial Emergency Preparedness on probable height of tsunami waves for use in developing appropriate preparedness and risk assessment analyses.

Eastern Canada Geohazards Assessment: Earthquake amplification microzonation studies in the Ottawa and Quebec City area are well underway. For Ottawa, our products may be used by the city, to: identify vulnerable facilities and infrastructure requiring seismic retrofitting, revise local emergency management plans, and formulate urban planning that considers areas of enhanced shaking hazards for locating critical infrastructure.

Space Weather Hazards Assessment: Equipment for measuring disruption of radio communications has been developed and is in the process of being deployed. Also, measurements of electric fields and pipe-to-soil potentials across a conductivity boundary will help pipeline engineers prevent corrosion. Presentations were made at an industry conference (IEEE Canada) to showcase our work on the space weather hazards to power systems. Considerable interest was shown by engineers at the conference.

Risk Assessment Methods: Development and refinement and documentation of vulnerability and risk assessment methods from natural hazards for a local population centre is underway and on track. Strong collaboration with land use and emergency planning decision makers is enabling the direct input and use of methodology by decision makers from the local to provincial scale. W.R.T. the next generation Building Code for Canada, continued participation with Canadian National Committee for Earthquake Engineering is ensuring uptake of relevant geoscience for engineering community.

Geohazard Awareness: New Natural Hazards web pages on Atlas of Canada are on track - we have developed a good working relationship between the Atlas of Canada group and the hazard experts. The activity to develop a printed version of the Natural Hazards Map for Canada has generated new enthusiasm and resources for the product from PSC.

2.4.9.1 By 2006, co-fund a minimum of 30 projects in partnership with other government departments, provinces, municipalities, industry and nongovernmental organizations. Completed NRCan funded 36 programs.
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