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ARCHIVED - Key Result #2

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Sustainable Development Strategy
Moving Forward

Key Result #2

Canadians are taking action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change.

Canada recognizes that climate change presents an important challenge to sustainable development. There will be impacts that challenge our natural resource sectors and related industries, affect the economic foundations of communities, and threaten the well-being of Canadians. To address this global problem, Canada works with the international community and has ratified the Kyoto Protocol, committing to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions to six percent below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. There are no easy solutions to achieving this commitment—it will require action and ingenuity from all Canadians, communities and governments.

Over the past few years, extensive discussions have taken place between the federal government and the provinces and territories on how to achieve our Kyoto objectives. Stakeholders have been consulted on the best options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. These discussions and consultations have helped to develop a federal emissions reduction strategy, embodied in the 2002 Climate Change Plan for Canada. The approach proposes the use of a series of different instruments to pursue emissions reduction in all sectors of Canadian society.

An important element of the approach is the negotiation of covenants on targets to reduce emissions of large final emitters in key industrial sectors. If left unaddressed, these emissions would be expected to form about half of Canada’s total greenhouse gas emissions by 2010. NRCan is pursuing this approach with firms in upstream and downstream oil and gas production, electricity generation, and mining and manufacturing. Firms will be required to meet specific targets for the 2008-2012 period. In order to facilitate compliance in a cost-effective manner, NRCan will develop a domestic emissions trading system, with access to domestic offsets and international permits and credits.

Current forestry and agricultural practices are expected to act as carbon ‘sinks’ by removing carbon from the atmosphere. Enhancing these practices could provide additional emission reduction ‘credits’ for the trading system. The Department will also be active in partnering on international opportunities in the natural resource sectors under the Kyoto Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation. These mechanisms were established to help industrialized countries achieve their Kyoto targets. They provide opportunities for Canadian organizations and enterprises to participate in international projects to obtain emissions reduction credits.

A covenant approach would be difficult to implement in other sectors, such as the residential, commercial, institutional and transportation sectors. These sectors are characterized by large numbers of small emitters, making an approach driven by sector-based targets more difficult and costly to administer. Still, as a group, these sectors are responsible for significant emissions and cannot be overlooked. To achieve emissions reduction in these sectors, the Government of Canada is relying on a series of targeted measures, mostly in the form of information and incentive programs.

As the department responsible for energy policy, NRCan is at the centre of these program efforts. Existing departmental activities are being expanded significantly. Energy efficiency in buildings and transportation represents a key strategic focus. For instance, building on the success of EnerGuide, NRCan will expand the breadth of information available to Canadians, to help them examine the real costs and potential savings of their consumer choices. As well, a new incentive to encourage upgrading the energy efficiency of existing houses is being introduced. Another strategic focus is to achieve emissions reduction by encouraging no- and low-carbon energy sources. Several important initiatives are being implemented to encourage the production and use of renewable and alternative energy sources such as wind power and ethanol.

The Government of Canada recognizes the importance of technology and innovation as part of its emissions reduction strategy. Significant investments are being made towards the development of technologies that will help reduce emissions over the longer term and create new economic opportunities. With its technical expertise, NRCan plays a leadership role within the federal government in advancing the development and demonstration of new technologies.

Even with successful global emissions reduction efforts, climate will continue to change and Canada will experience climate change impacts. There are climate change implications throughout the natural resource sectors that will require adaptive responses by government, industry and communities. In the North, for example, it will be increasingly important to forecast, monitor and plan for changes in the permafrost that may affect highways, pipelines, buildings and other infrastructure. Information about possible shifts in forest ranges, risks of forest fires, pests and diseases and possible management responses can assist the forestry sector in preparing for these climate change impacts.

NRCan, through its funding programs and expertise, will be involved in expanding the assessment of vulnerabilities to climate change impacts to all areas of Canada. The Impacts and Adaptation Program will continue to play a leadership role, delivering a national assessment of the impacts of climate change and our capacity to adapt to them as well as developing outreach materials to increase awareness of the impacts of climate change and the need to address them in the future through adaptation. The Canadian Climate Impact and Adaptation Research Network will increasingly link researchers and stakeholders to ensure that research and activities contribute appropriate information for decision making.

Canadians are already beginning to adapt, planning ahead for the anticipated impacts of climate change; NRCan will be working to support Canadians, governments and the private sector in addressing adaptation challenges and opportunities. Adaptation responses are best handled in an integrated manner as policies developed by one department may affect another department’s responsibility. NRCan leads the interdepartmental committee that provides strategic direction and coordinates federal activity on vulnerability, impacts and adaptation.


Icon: Policy and Governance

2.1 Advance policy and dialogue to address climate change

Icon: Tools and ApplicationsIcon: Best Practices and Models

2.2 Achieve emissions reductions through energy efficiency, renewable and alternative energy, and carbon sequestration

Icon: Policy and Governance

2.3 Establish greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets for key industry sectors

Icon: Tools and Applications

2.4 Undertake science and technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve Canada’s ability to further mitigate and adapt to climate change impacts

Action 2.1: Advance policy and dialogue to address climate change
Issue Approach Target Anticipated outcome

In December 2002, the Government of Canada ratified the Kyoto Protocol, under which, Canada has agreed to a greenhouse gas emissions reduction target of 6 percent below 1990 levels during the period 2008 to 2012. To support the ratification decision, the Government of Canada released the Climate Change Plan for Canada, a framework for action.

During the period 1997 to 2002, the Government of Canada initiated a series of actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including through the Action Plan 2000. Budget 2003 committed $2 billion to climate change, of which $1.3 billion had been allocated to a series of concrete measures by the summer 2003.

NRCan will work with other departments to facilitate future decisions of the Government of Canada concerning climate change.

As a result of Budget 2003, a series of new policies and programs are being developed and implemented by NRCan and other departments.

By 2005, evaluate effectiveness of policies and programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

By 2005, report internationally on Canada’s progress in achieving its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.

By 2006, advise and support the Government of Canada in deciding the allocation of the remaining funding from Budget 2003.

Effective advice that supports the Government of Canada’s efforts on climate change in a way to minimize costs and maximize benefits for Canada.

International negotiations on a post-2012 climate change regime are to begin in 2005. NRCan will help develop Canada’s approach to this round of international negotiations.

Canada’s approach will need to take into account Canada’s national circumstances, and balance environmental and economic objectives.

NRCan will work with other key federal departments to develop a Canadian approach and positioning in preparation for these negotiations. Consultations with key stakeholders and other levels of Canadian government will also be important.

By 2005, construct a Canadian negotiating position on climate change.

Effective representation of Canada’s interests in the climate change negotiations under the international United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that are to begin in 2005.

Demonstration of Canada’s global leadership on sustainable development.

Provincial and territorial governments play a key role in the implementation of actions to address climate change.

Funding of $160 million under the recently announced Opportunities Envelope is available to provide federal support towards cost-effective emissions reduction initiatives brought forward by provinces and territories.

NRCan will participate in bilateral and multilateral discussions with provinces and territories, to develop a collaborative approach to implementing mitigation measures.

By 2004, sign memoranda of understanding with interested provinces and territories.

By 2005, have the Opportunities Envelope initiative operational and providing funding towards provincial and territorial action.

Increased emissions reduction actions by provinces and territories.

Improved multi-jurisdictional collaboration between federal, provincial and territorial governments in implementing mitigation measures.

Canada is assessing the potential of fast-growing tree plantations for absorbing/storing significant quantities of greenhouse gases. A key component of this policy thrust is the development of options to channel major investments into additional plantations, thus increasing Canada’s ‘econological carbon storage infrastructure.’

 NRCan will examine options to bring that investment to Canada, and how best to channel those monies. NRCan will build on international experience, such as the World Bank’s BioCarbon Fund, and from countries such as Australia and members of the European Union.

The development of options will examine existing legal frameworks and investment vehicle structures to facilitate the emergence of a vehicle to channel investments in fast- growing trees. NRCan will continue to work with the Working Group on Offsets and Large Final Emitters on the opportunity of carbon storage in trees.

By 2005, develop recommended options to attract investment for additional plantations.

A mechanism to encourage and manage investment in fast-growing plantations in Canada.

Contribution to the Offset Trading System process.

The Kyoto Protocol provides mechanisms to help countries reach their targets. NRCan will facilitate access for Canada to international carbon credits through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol.

NRCan will facilitate access for Canada to international carbon credits through CDM and JI projects that reduce emissions in other countries.

Work with NRCan technology partners, and with the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade CDM-JI Office will strengthen linkages with potential Canadian technology partners within the natural resource industries in order to facilitate CDM-JI projects.

By 2005, establish, at minimum, one Clean Development Mechanism-Joint Implementation (CDM-JI) pilot project.

Increased awareness of CDM-JI benefits for the Canadian natural resource industries.

Greater ease of implementation of CDM-JI projects by Canadian natural resource industries.

Climate change has started to affect the lives of Canadians and further changes in climate are expected. Governments at federal, provincial and municipal levels have realized actions must be taken to mitigate climate change impacts or to adapt to changes.

NRCan will improve the knowledge base related to Canada’s vulnerability to climate change, in order to assist in decision making on adaptation and better assess the risks.

NRCan will address impact and adaptation issues at national, regional and municipal levels.

By 2005, complete scoping papers to method development for monitoring and assessments of the potential of biological and geological carbon storage.

By 2005, contribute to the development of the national Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Program report on Canada’s vulnerability to climate change.

By 2006, with municipal and/or provincial partners, produce and disseminate plain- language reports that describe impacts of climate change and best practices for municipal response to climate change.

Information to support municipal and provincial planning processes.

Estimates of the cost of climate change to inform discussions about climate change commitments.

Assessments and monitoring methodology that are used by Canadian agencies in their contribution to climate change negotiations.

Synthesis products that are used by the national process and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.


Action 2.2 : Achieve emissions reductions through energy efficiency, renewable and alternative energy, and carbon sequestration
Issue Approach Target Anticipated outcome

Canadians have a role to play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Social marketing initiatives will help to support a shift towards consumer behaviour that better supports sustainable development objectives.

NRCan will encourage Canadians to take action through outreach programs that increase awareness and understanding of climate change, and the link to energy useand to.

Activities will include promotional initiatives, public information, Canada’s Energy Efficiency Awards, and investment in joint initiatives in the youth and education sector. For example, the Energy and the Environment Calendar has been a very successful initiative that has involved schoolchildren from across Canada.

By 2007, establish and maintain awareness levels at 80%.

By 2007, achieve a 30% increase in participation in outreach activities.

The Canadian public is more informed about climate change and energy efficiency.

Individual Canadians are more willing to take action.

Seventeen percent of secondary energy consumption in Canada comes from heating, cooling, lighting and operating Canadian dwellings.

There are opportunities to decrease energy consumption in new homes, existing homes, and equipment, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

NRCan will improve the energy efficiency of Canadian households through the use of: information; home energy audits; labelling and promotion, EnerGuide and EnergyStar premium labelling; equipment standards and regulations; R-2000 housing construction standard and training; and a grant program for home renovations to make homes more energy efficient.

By 2007, 20% average energy savings for homes that undertake a second, post-renovation EnerGuide for Houses audit.

By 2010, all new housing at EnerGuide for Houses 80-R-2000 level.

Knowledge of opportunities for energy efficiency improvements in the residential sector and the ability to implement them.

Reduced greenhouse gas emissions from residential sources.

Longer-term, increased energy efficiency in the housing sector contributes to more sustainable use of natural resources.

The commercial and institutional sector accounts for approximately 13% of secondary energy consumption in Canada. This sector uses energy mainly for space and water heating, space cooling, lighting, and motive power for services such as pumping and ventilation in buildings.

There are opportunities for energy efficiency improvements in new buildings, existing buildings, and equipment.

The adoption of innovative and sustainable techniques for new building construction and for existing building retrofits can help drive reduced energy consumption and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. These initiatives also help achieve cost-effective business cases that support access to capital investment.

NRCan’s approach is to improve the energy efficiency of Canadian buildings through program development and delivery. These programs use: information; training; voluntary initiatives; labelling and promotion; equipment standards and regulations; and financial incentives.

The Energy Innovators Initiative provides a variety of tools and services, including technical and management information, training, advice and financial incentives.

By 2006, improve average energy intensity by 20% in retrofitted commercial and institutional buildings which have received financial incentives.

By 2007, ensure that 10% of all new construction receive contributions from the Commercial Building Incentive Program.

Knowledge of opportunities for energy efficiency improvements in the building sector and the ability to implement them.

Reduced greenhouse gas emissions from commercial and institutional buildings.

Longer-term, increased energy efficiency in buildings contributes to more sustainable use of natural resources.

Renewable energy technologies for heating and cooling of space and water such as solar, biomass combustion and ground-source heat pumps, offer opportunities for Canada to displace use of fossil fuels and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from buildings.

However, these technologies currently come with a high first-cost which limits demand. As well, decision makers such as architects, engineers and building owners are not yet fully familiar with renewable energy technologies.

The Renewable Energy Deployment Initiative (REDI) encourages the development of a self-sustaining renewable energy technology market and attendant infrastructure to serve Canadian industry, businesses and institutions including federal facilities.

REDI works with partners to build awareness of renewable energy technologies and build the market for these technologies, so that price falls and demand increases – thereby displacing fossil fuel use and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

By 2008, installation of 1000 new solar thermal and biomass combustion systems on Canadian business and institutional facilities.

By 2008, installation of 25,000 new ground- source heat-pump systems on Canadian business and institutional facilities.

Development of a self-sustaining renewable supply industry in Canada.

Increased awareness, use of, and demand for renewable technology.

Reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

More competitive and profitable Canadian industries and businesses with lower energy costs.

The transportation sector accounts for more than 28% of secondary energy use in Canada. Approximately 70% of greenhouse gas emissions from transportation are a result of people driving cars and goods being moved by truck.

Carbon dioxide emissions from road transport increased more than from any other sector between 1990 and 2000. This occurred because the volume of heavy- and light-duty vehicle travel has steadily increased during the period. Further, there has been no significant improvement in their average fuel efficiency. With strong growth in travel expected to continue, this sector presents a challenge in contributing to emissions reduction towards Canada’s Kyoto target.

NRCan aims to improve the energy efficiency of Canadians through the use of: education and awareness; information and tools; voluntary initiatives; training and best practices; vehicle labelling; new vehicle efficiency targets; technology demonstrations; and financial incentives.

By 2010, achieve an average fuel consumption reduction of 25% in the 2010 new vehicle fleet from current corporate average fuel consumption standards through the negotiation of an agreement with automobile manufacturers for a voluntary fuel consumption target (or set of targets).

By 2010, expand fuel ethanol production and use in Canada, contributing significantly to Canada’s target of having at least 35% of the gasoline supply contain 10% ethanol.

Increased use of alternative fuels.

Increased fuel efficiency of Canadian vehicles.

Reduced greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation sources.

Reducing industrial energy use per unit of production improves economic performance and contributes to Canada’s climate change objectives.

Currently, industry faces barriers such as a lack of knowledge of how to proceed with respect to identifying and implementing opportunities, lack of knowledge of more energy efficient technology processes and operating practices, lack of capital for undertaking upgrades, and a lack of confidence in the outcomes of a retrofit project.

The Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC), a sector-level industry/government alliance, and the Industrial Energy Innovators Initiative, a company-level program, work together to address the barriers to planning, implementing, tracking and reporting energy efficiency projects in industry.

NRCan provides support to these two initiatives via energy audits, sector benchmarking, technical information, energy- management workshops, employee- awareness kits and events and best-practices guides. NRCan also facilitates information exchange between and among sectors and companies.

By 2005, initiate 100 industrial energy audits.

By 2005, recruit 45 new companies as Industrial Energy Innovators.

By 2006, all CIPEC task forces to have targets and action plans.

Knowledge of opportunities for energy efficiency improvements in Canadian industry and the ability to implement them.

Reduced greenhouse gas emissions in the industrial sector.

Longer-term, increased energy efficiency in industry contributes to increased competitiveness and more sustainable use of natural resources.

While most Canadian electricity is already derived from renewable sources, including large hydro, increasing the capacity of these sources would allow us to reduce greenhouse gas emissions further from the electricity sector. Challenges associated with renewable energy sources such as wind, solar and biomass power include higher costs and inexperience with the use of these technologies.

Government can facilitate the development of an appropriate policy, investment and regulatory framework, consistent with a competitive market for electricity, to encourage increased generation and capacity for hydro electricity and related transmission.

NRCan will work with interested jurisdictions to reduce barriers to interprovincial trade and transmission of electricity.

The Wind Power Production Incentive and the Market Incentive Program complement this work by providing incentives towards the production and distribution of emerging renewable electricity sources.

By 2006, establish five new agreements under the Market Incentive Program to support distributors of electricity from emerging renewable sources in their marketing efforts.

By 2007, install 1,000 MW of new wind energy capacity in Canada.

New wind energy capacity.

Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

More renewable energy technologies as options in the supply generation mix.

Governments can play an important role in the domestic strategy. Beyond developing and implementing a domestic emissions reduction strategy, the Government of Canada can take leadership action by reducing its own emissions.

NRCan will improve the energy efficiency of, and increase the use of alternative energy in Government of Canada operations through the use of voluntary commitments, information and training. Specifically, NRCan will work towards the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from all federal operations to 31% below 1990 levels by 2010.

This initiative provides a set of tools to assist departments in reducing their emissions resulting from energy production, distribution and consumption activities, employee behaviour, procurement activities and fleet management activities

By 2006, complete agreements to purchase 450 GWh of electricity from renewable sources.

Reduced greenhouse gas emissions from Government of Canada operations.

Increased procurement of renewable energy.

Demonstration of environmental leadership.


Action 2.3: Establish greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets for key industry sectors
Issue Approach Target Anticipated outcome

Projections show that key industry sectors could produce about half of Canada’s total greenhouse gas emissions by 2010. These industry sectors can make an important contribution to helping Canada meet its greenhouse gas emissions reduction target. Innovative market mechanisms can increase the incentive for research, development, and deployment of new technologies.

NRCan will work with key industry sectors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during the first Kyoto Protocol commitment period (2008-2012).

To reach its objective, NRCan will develop a covenant approach, supported by backstop legislation, and a flexible framework for industry to achieve its goals, including: domestic emissions trading; access to Canadian offsets; and, access to international permits and credits.

Ongoing consultations with provinces and territories, industry, and other stakeholders will ensure that the policies and measures are effective, administratively efficient and clear, help to maintain the competitiveness of Canadian industry, and respond to emerging environmental goals.

Through 2004-2006, NRCan will complete memoranda/letters of understanding with large final emitting companies that have stepped forward and meet covenant eligibility criteria.

By 2006, work will proceed on the framework legislation and associated policy development, including development of a domestic emissions trading system that provides access to Canadian offsets and international permits and credits.

Clarity for key industry sectors on their contribution to Canada’s goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions during the period 2008-2012.

Greater understanding of the various elements of the covenant approach among key industry sectors and players (for example, the emissions trading mechanisms that they may use to help them achieve their goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Canada during the period 2008-2012).


Action 2.4: Undertake science and technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve Canada’s ability to further mitigate and adapt to climate change impacts
Issue Approach Target Anticipated outcome

Long-term climate change technologies, such as cleaner fossil fuels, advanced end-use efficiency, decentralized energy production, biotechnology and hydrogen technologies, represent an opportunity for Canada to address its climate change commitments while supporting innovation and competitiveness in Canada.

NRCan will advance promising greenhouse gas reduction technologies through research and development, demonstration, and early adoption through the Technology and Innovation Initiative II.

Involving federal and provincial governments, industry and academic partners, this initiative will support long- term knowledge and technology development to address greenhouse gas reductions through scientific models, experimental results, databases, and benchscale and demonstration scale prototypes.

By 2006, establish a science and technology foundation to support the development and demonstration of promising greenhouse gas reduction technologies.

New knowledge and technologies are available to Canadians to advance sustainable development in the development, conversion and use of energy.

Improved environmental and social responsibility in the delivery of goods and services is enabled by S&T in the natural resource sectors.

There is increasing interest in using fast growing trees for fibre, carbon sequestration, farm-income diversification, soil stabilization and other social, economic and environmental reasons.

Canada can address its commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the demonstration of fast-growing tree plantations.

NRCan will demonstrate that we have the technology to make fast-growing plantations a viable option for Canada by establishing a network of fast-growing tree plantation demonstrations across the country

NRCan will work with forest sector partners and delivery agencies to implement the plantation demos. A variety of fast-growing tree species will be planted.

NRCan will evaluate existing experience and information regarding the use of fast-growing tree plantations and identify gaps in knowledge. Activities will then be focussed on addressing those gaps through targeted activities.

By 2005, establish fast growing plantation demonstrations in five regional areas.

By 2004, complete evaluation and identification of gaps in knowledge and products.

By 2006, produce materials and new knowledge to address gaps in information.

Showcasing of Canada’s technical know-how in fast growing demonstration plantations.

Test parameters for future investments in fast- growing plantations are established.

Foundation for the establishment of additional fast growing plantations in Canada.

Preparation for the inclusion of carbon sinks through afforestation in the international carbon market.

Energy supply studies indicate a potential continental natural gas supply gap, due primarily to demand growth from electrical power generation, an environmentally friendly fuel preference, and cost advantages.

NRCan will provide geoscience products and engineering activities that will start the process of transforming gas hydrates into a well characterized, successfully prospected, commercially viable and environmentally friendly natural gas supply.

By 2005, characterize Canadian gas hydrates occurrences, their resource potential and their development risks.

By 2005, disseminate information to targeted industry and government audiences in various formats.

Development by Canadian industry of exploration programs to locate and characterize petroleum gas hydrate and hydrate/free gas deposits.

The commonly reported poor de-icing salt scaling resistance of concretes incorporating fly ash or slag creates barriers for the use of large amounts of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs) in roads and sidewalks. Replacing cement with supplementary materials decreases carbon dioxide emissions for every cubic metre of concrete produced. As well, less fly ash ends up as landfill waste. Improving the durability of SCMs in concrete will promote increased use.

NRCan, in partnership with a government- industry-university consortium, will research the de-icing salt scaling resistance of concrete incorporating supplementary cementing materials by conducting comparative field and laboratory investigation (technical activities); and networking (specifiers and standards organizations).

The objectives are: to provide better understanding of the de-icing salt scaling resistance of concretes incorporating supplementary cementing materials; the development of specifications and standards to deal with the issue; to convince the different specifying agencies to increase the use of fly ash or slag in concretes exposed to de-icing salts; and to convince them that this will not jeopardize long-term field performance of concrete infrastructure.

By 2005, develop recommendations for new specifications and standards dealing with the use of supplementary cementing materials in concrete exposed to de-icing salts.

By 2006, develop technical data on de-icing salt scaling resistance of concrete incorporating supplementary cementing materials.

Increased use of supplementary cementing materials in roads and sidewalks, which will help Canada reduce greenhouse gas emissions and meet international obligations under the Kyoto Protocol.

Alkali-silica and alkali-carbonate reactions (or AAR) is one of the major leading causes of concrete distress in Canada and worldwide. Use of SCMs (see previous item) is probably the best economical and technical way to control the risk of premature deterioration of concrete infrastructure incorporating reactive aggregates. Use of SCMs will lead to decreased reactivity and therefore increased life expectancy of concrete structures.

NRCan will also work with stakeholders involved with the supply and use of SCMs and the owners of structures that could be built using SCMs, to develop guidelines, specifications and standards. These stakeholders include federal, provincial and municipal governments (as owners and regulators), private-sector property developers, cement producers, concrete producers, architects and engineers.

By December of each year (2004, 2005, 2006) develop technical data on effectiveness of high-calcium fly ash on AAR.

By 2007, develop recommendations for new specifications and standards dealing with the use of such ashes in concrete incorporating reactive aggregates (e.g. CSA A23. ½; ASTM standard to be developed).

New specifications on the use of SCMs in concrete incorporating high calcium fly ash and reactive aggregates.

Increased durability of concrete incorporating reactive aggregate.

Canada’'s overall objective in transportation research and development is to reduce energy demand and emissions in all modes of transportation - including road, rail and marine - while maintaining a reliable fuel supply. To do this, new lightweight transportation technologies are required.

CLiMRI is an industry led, strategic initiative which focuses on materials development and application in all types of ground transportation vehicles. It involves the development of material compositions for high-strength steels, magnesium, aluminum, metal-matrix composites, plastics and ceramics where applicable. These technologies span the life cycle of lightweight materials production from the treatment of primary metal to recycling at the end of product life.

The manufacturing technologies addressed include smelting and purification, advanced casting and metal forming technologies, joining technologies, coatings and corrosion resistance treatments, other fabrication technologies such as semi-solid forming and specialized heat treatments, and recycling technologies.

By 2004, make recommendations to the US Auto Materials Partnership regarding suitability of various coatings for the prevention of corrosion of magnesium alloys.

By 2005, explore the feasibility of casting titanium for automotive parts.

By 2006, produce prototypes of automotive components made in aluminum and magnesium alloys. In conjunction with the AUTO 21 Centers of Excellence, research the production of alloys 319 and 390.

By 2006, work out the processing parameters for multiphase, ultra-fine grain steels.

By 2007, develop in-house process capability for the warm forming of magnesium and aluminum alloys, as well as hydroforming of aluminum and steel tubes.

Reduced greenhouse gas emissions through improved vehicle efficiency.

Improved competitive performance of the Canadian primary metals, automotive, truck, bus and rail-car manufacturing industries and their associated parts suppliers.

Greater knowledge among Canadian automotive industry suppliers on the options available for use and implementation of lightweight materials, especially in the design and manufacture of lower-weight components.

Increased level of involvement and/or collaboration with the Canadian industry in optimizing vehicle weight and performance.

Management decisions regarding adaptation to climate change are made in the context of other resource-management considerations, and costs are an important aspect. Reliable scientific information on the future impacts of climate variability and change and the effectiveness of various adaptation options is needed.

The issue will be addressed through research based on satellite measurements and ground observations in regions of Canada sensitive to climate change; publication of scientific and plain-language reports; and incorporation of new knowledge in planning and resource management to minimize negative impacts of climate change by adaptation and mitigation.

By 2005, publish digital libraries of landscape sensitivity appropriate to the requirements of other government departments for priority regions.

By 2005, complete quantitative assessment of terrestrial and coastal response to climate change in key physiographic zones (permafrost, coastal and near-shore environment, forests).

By 2006, prepare national assessment of landscape and forest ecosystem response to climate change (two synthesis reports).

Regional databases, maps and reports that are used by federal and provincial/territorial governments to develop adaptation options.

Improved information for the planning process of municipalities/provinces.

S&T expertise contributes to the estimates of the cost of climate change.

Earth processes pose a variety of hazards to human safety and infrastructure in the context of climate change.

Canadians, municipalities, provinces and territories need more information about the possible increase in natural hazards resulting from climate change.

Critical infrastructure necessary for the transportation and development of natural resources are threatened by new natural hazard situations resulting from climate change.

NRCan will increase its capacity to identify, forecast, monitor, and report on natural hazards (including earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, landslides and magnetic storms) and their events, and increase the capacity of Canadians and responsible authorities to mitigate and respond to their harmful effects.

NRCan will also work to understand changes in the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to natural hazards because of climate change.

By 2007, NRCan will provide decision makers with national hazard inventories and assessments, improved hazard forecasting, an upgraded earthquake and geomagnetic monitoring system, and improved reporting capacity (including custom emergency maps and images) in response to complex crisis events and emergencies.

Reduced socio-economic losses due to natural hazards.

Increased reassurance for Canadians that we will be able to manage the risk of hazards related to climate change.

Decreased losses from earthquakes and landslides in population centers and critical infrastructure.

Enhanced disaster response preparedness.

Seventy-five percent of all solid waste is disposed at an annual cost of $3.4 billion, rising 8% per year. A large portion of this waste can be recovered and reused.

Resource recovery is energy efficient; energy efficiency in turn reduces greenhouse gas emissions.

NRCan will establish a multi-stakeholder recycling advisory committee to guide project development and enhance networking with the provinces, municipalities, non-government organizations and industry representatives.

NRCan will implement projects that are relevant to the overall goal of reducing Canadian greenhouse gas emissions in an economically sustainable manner, to increase the recovery and recycling of multiple product streams across all sectors of the economy.

This initiative is partnership based and has currently co-funded about twenty different projects involving pilots and demonstrations, consultations, network building, material- flow analyses, information transfer, barrier analysis, and life-cycle approaches.

By 2006, co-fund a minimum of 30 projects in partnership with other government departments, provinces, municipalities, industry and non-governmental organizations.

Improved resource recovery knowledge and expertise.

Decrease, over time, in the amount of resources disposed in Canadian landfills.

Reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

New employment opportunities related to resource recovery.

Increased Canadian competitiveness in global economy resulting from improved efficiency.


SD Solution for the Future

Going underground: The Weyburn CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project

The Kyoto Protocol presents Canada with a significant challenge to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. Achieving the target of reducing emissions to six percent below their 1990 levels by the Kyoto commitment period of 2008-2012 will require action and ingenuity on the part of all sectors of Canadian society. The Government of Canada is implementing an emissions reduction strategy that encourages the use of currently available solutions, focussing on energy efficiency and alternative energy sources. The Government is also investing in the development of new long-term technologies to achieve further reductions. One federal priority in this area is the development of technologies for cleaner fossil fuel production, conversion and combustion. A very promising technology in this area is the capture and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2).

CO2 capture and storage, in general terms, involves the capture, treatment, transportation and injection of CO2 into a suitable geological formation. CO2 is first captured from a suitable industrial source, such as a petrochemical processing facility or a coal-fired electricity generation plant. The gas stream is then treated and transported to the storage site where it is injected into the selected geological formation. In Western Canada, among the most promising commercial opportunities for storing CO2 involve partially depleted oil reservoirs. Combining CO2 injection with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) represents an opportunity to store undesirable greenhouse gas emissions while offsetting the cost of that storage by recovering some of the remaining oil.

The International Energy Agency (IEA) Weyburn CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project is investigating the technical and economic feasibility of CO2 storage in a partially depleted oil reservoir at Weyburn, located in southeastern Saskatchewan, near the U.S. border with North Dakota. This international research project intends to establish the degree of security with which CO2 can be stored in geological formations during large-scale, commercial, enhanced oil-recovery operations. This is being accomplished through scientific mapping of the movement of CO2 in the reservoir, and technical prediction of future long-term CO2 storage. The end result will be a credible assessment of the permanent containment of injected CO2.

The IEA Weyburn project builds upon EnCana Corporation’s $1.5 billion, 30-year commercial CO2-EOR operation to recover an incremental 130 MMbl of oil at Weyburn. The project is unique because monitoring the geological storage medium (the oil reservoir) began prior to CO2 injection. NRCan is one of 6 international government sponsors, 9 international corporations and 20 international research providers partnering on the four-year, $42 million first phase of the Weyburn project. The Regina-based Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC), a research and development organization with the ability to collaborate with a number of research facilities, is acting as the coordinator for research on the Weyburn project. The PTRC is an NRCan-funded non-profit corporation with a mandate to develop new and improved technologies for application in the Saskatchewan oil and gas industry. Led by the PTRC, a team of the best international researchers has been assembled for each element of the project. The final reports for Phase I will be completed in mid-2004. Phase II of the project will include continuing to monitor the movement of CO2 in the reservoir and refining the risk/performance assessment to help determine the feasibility of CO2 geological storage over the long term, measured in thousands of years.

Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is one of several methods for geological storage of CO2. Investigations are also under way to study the feasibility of utilizing unminable coal beds through enhanced coal bed methane production (ECBM). Non-commercial storage opportunities include deep saline aquifers, salt domes and rock caverns.

The IEA Weyburn project intends to demonstrate, by 2010, that CO2-EOR is economically viable, environmentally responsible and socially acceptable. Understanding CO2 capture and geological storage is an important aspect of maintaining our fossil-fuel energy options while we take action on climate change. Geological storage also has the potential to limit the overall costs of Canada’s greenhouse gas mitigation strategy, while providing significant economic benefits to technology providers and end-users. The information gained from the Weyburn project could be used worldwide for similar geological formations. A better understanding of the relationships between the related objectives of oil recovery and carbon dioxide storage could be used to help identify sites with low-cost CO2 storage potential. The technology and understanding developed in this project will be of enormous significance to the establishment of geologic sequestration as a viable and publicly acceptable option for greenhouse gas emissions control worldwide.

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