Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHGs)
Protecting the environment and growing the economy go hand in hand. Taking action on climate change means reducing emissions and increasing climate resilience, while helping Canada diversify its economy and generate well-paying jobs.
- In 2017, 82% of electricity in Canada came from non-GHG emitting sources
- Energy consumption grew by 26% between 1990 and 2016
- Energy efficiency improved by 31% between 1990 and 2016
- Investment in clean energy technology was over $3.3 billion in 2017
Learn more about energy’s impact on the environment
A wide variety of factors have an influence on the level of GHG emissions in Canada. Globally, about 78% of GHG emissions from human activity are from the production and consumption of energy. This includes activities such as using gasoline for transportation, non-renewable electricity production, oil and gas production, and heating and cooling of buildings.
In Canada, over 81% of emissions come from energy. Canadians use more energy due to our extreme temperatures, vast landscape and dispersed population.
Since 2000, there has been a decoupling between the growth of Canada’s economy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Between 2000 and 2017, Canada’s GHG emissions decreased by 2%, GHG emissions decreased 30% per dollar of GDP and 20% per capita (largely due to technological improvements, regulations, and more efficient practices and equipment).
Learn more about Greenhouse gas emissions by Canadian economic sector.
GHG emissions from oil and gas production have gone up 23% between 2000 and 2017, largely from increased oil sands production, particularly in-situ extraction.
CO2 Equivalent emissions from the oil and gas sector increased from 158 Mt in 2000 to 195 Mt in 2017. The share of oil sands has visibly increased over this span, from 16% of oil and gas emissions in 2000 to 41% in 2017.
The Government of Canada has committed to reducing methane emissions from the oil and gas sector by 40% to 45% from 2012 levels by 2025. New regulations limiting methane emissions from fugitive sources such as leaks and venting will apply to the oil and gas sector beginning in 2020.
Oil sands emissions intensity (in kgCo2e per barrel) has decreased from 114 kgCO2e per barrel in 2000 to 82 kgCO2e per barrel in 2017.
Due to technological and operational efficiency improvements, oil sands emissions per barrel have decreased 28% from 2000 to 2017.
Learn more about GHG emissions intensity by source type for oil and gas industrial sector.
Despite accounting for less than 9% of total electricity generation, coal was responsible for 77% of electricity related GHG emissions in 2017. Total electricity emissions decreased by 42% from 2000 to 2017 due to increased generation from non-emitting sources.
Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from electricity generation were stable around almost 130 megatonnes in 2001. Since then, GHG emissions have declined to less than 75 megatonnes in 2017.
Renewable electricity generation has increased 18% between 2010 and 2017, with solar and wind having largest growth.
In 2017, almost 82% of electricity in Canada came from non-GHG emitting sources. Hydro made up 60%, nuclear 15%, and other renewables the remaining 7%.
Renewable energy sources make up 2/3’s of Canada’s electricity mix. Renewable electricity generation has increased 18% between 2010 and 2017, with solar and wind having largest growth.
Wind net electricity generation was 1,552 GWh in 2005, rising to 28,775 GWh in 2017. Solar net electricity generation was 17 GWh in 2005, rising to 3,573 GWh in 2017.
Transportation GHG emissions have increased 19% from 2000 to 2017. Emissions from passenger light trucks and freight trucks have continued to rise due to an increased number of vehicles (especially light trucks and SUVs). Freight emissions have increased due to many factors including increasing trade and globalization, and online shopping.
Overall, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector have increased from about 146 megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents in 2000 to 174 megatonnes in 2017. GHG emissions from passenger vehicles increased from 81 megatonnes in 2000 to 94 megatonnes in 2017. Freight trucks account for the largest increase from 50 megatonnes in 2000 to 72 megatonnes in 2017.
Transportation energy use in 2016 totals 2,683 PJ. Motor gasoline accounts for 58% of the total fuel mix, followed by diesel fuel oil at 28%, aviation turbo fuels at 10%, ethanol at 2%, and heavy fuel oil at 1%.
Passenger transportation contributes 54% to total emissions, freight emissions are 41% of total and off-road is 5%.
Energy efficiency improvements in the transportation sector have saved Canadians 763 PJ of energy and almost $20.8 billion in energy costs in 2016.
Total transportation energy use increased 16% from 2000 to 2016.
Electric vehicles in Canada
In 2018, electric vehicle sales made up 2.2% of total vehicle sales. Over 44,000 vehicles were sold in 2018, more than double the sales in 2017. Electric vehicle sales are highest in the provinces of Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia.
Electric vehicle sales in Canada have increased from 468 electric vehicles sold in 2011 to 44,175 in 2018.
To ensure continued uptake, the federal government is undertaking a series of measures. It includes a $300 million investment in the creation of a new federal purchase incentive to buy zero-emission vehicles, a $130 million investment in new zero-emission vehicle infrastructure deployment, and a $5 million fund to work with automakers to secure ZEV sale targets.
A look at Canada’s total primary energy supply (TPES) helps to better understand the impact of energy sources on greenhouse gas emissions. The TPESFootnote 1 is calculated as:
TPES = Production + Imports - Exports + Stock changes
Canada’s total primary energy supply in 2017 was 12,102 petajoules. Natural gas accounts for 35% of the total primary energy supply, followed by crude oil and NGLs at 35%, hydro at 11%, nuclear at 9%, coal at 6%, and other renewables at 6%.
Fossil fuels made up 76% of Canada’s TPES in 2017.
Renewable energy sources made up 17.3% of Canada’s TPES in 2017.
Comparatively, the global TPES is made up of:
- 81% fossil fuel (oil 32%, coal 27%, natural gas 22%)
- 14% renewables
- and 5% nuclear
* Not including electricity trade
**“Other renewables” includes wind, solar, wood/wood waste, biofuels and geothermal
Energy use by sector
There are two different kinds of energy use, primary and secondary.
Primary energy use is a measure of the total energy requirements of all users of energy. It includes the energy required to transform one form of energy into another (e.g. coal to electricity); the energy used to bring energy supplies to the consumer (e.g. pipeline); and the energy used to feed industrial production processes Primary energy use includes secondary energy use.
Not every fuel is consumed as energy. For example, hydrocarbon gas liquids in Canada are also used as a non-energy feedstock in the petrochemical industry.
Canada’s primary energy consumed in 2016 was estimated at 12,713 PJ.
In 2016, Canada’s primary energy supply was estimated at 12,713 petajoules. 69% of all primary energy is transformed into secondary energy where 27% of that sum accounts for the industrial sector, 21% for transportation, 11% residential, 8% commercial and institutional, and 2% is agriculture.
Secondary energy use accounts for the energy used by final consumers in the economy.
This includes the energy used to run vehicles; the energy used to heat and cool buildings; and the energy required to run machinery.
Canada’s secondary energy use in 2016 was 8,786 PJ
Total secondary energy use increased 9% from 2000 to 2016. Natural gas usage grew by almost 18% during the same time period.
Canada’s secondary energy use in 2016 was 8,786 PJ. Natural gas accounts for 29% of total secondary energy use, followed by electricity at 20%, motor gasoline at 18%, oil at 15%, other oil products at 9%, biomass at 6%, and other fuel types such as coal and natural gas liquids at 3%.
Historical energy efficiency
Canada’s industrial, transportation, commercial and institutional sectors are large consumers of energy. One of the key benefits of efficiency improvements is that they slow the rate of growth in energy use and reduce GHG emissions.
What is Energy Intensity?
Energy intensity is the ratio of energy use per unit of activity (such as floor space and GDP).
What is Energy efficiency?
Energy efficiency is a measure of how effectively energy is used for a given purpose and an important path towards decarbonisation.
Energy Efficiency Facts
- Energy efficiency in Canada improved by 31.4% between 1990 and 2016
- Energy use grew by 26% between 1990 and 2016. Without energy efficiency improvements, energy use would have grown by 56%
- Energy efficiency savings of 2,090 PJ in 2016 were equivalent to end-user savings of $45 billion
Secondary energy use grew by 26% between 1990 and 2016. Without energy efficiency improvements, energy use would have grown by 56%. Energy efficiency measures resulted in estimated savings of 2,090 PJ in 2016.
Total Energy use per unit of GDP
Per capita energy consumption was 9% lower in 2017 than in 2000. Canada used 20% less energy per dollar of GDP in 2017 than in 2000. This metric indicates how much energy was consumed for every dollar of economic activity generated.
Per capita energy use in 2017 was 9% lower than in 2000. Canada used 20% less energy per dollar of GDP in 2017 than in 2000.
Residential energy use
Canadian households use energy every day – to power lights and appliances, heat or cool spaces, run personal vehicles, recharge electronics, and more.
- 80% of residential energy consumption is used for space and water heating
- Residential energy efficiency improved by 51% between 1990 and 2016, saving 721 PJ of energy and $15 billion in energy costs
- Residential energy use increased 2.4% since 1990, but would have increased by 53% without energy efficiency improvements
Residential appliances energy use in Canada totalled 1,458 petajoules in 2016. 61% is attributable to space heating and 19% to water heating. Appliances accounted for 14%, lighting for 4%, and space cooling for 2%.
Space heating energy use in Canada totalled 885 petajoules in 2016. 47% of that energy came from natural gas, 26% from electricity, 19% from wood, 6% from heating oil, and 2% from other sources.
Water-heating energy use in Canada totalled 284 petajoules in 2016. 68% of that energy came from natural gas, 27% from electricity, 3% from heating oil, and 2% from wood.
While the energy intensity of sub-sectors has decreased since 1990 (apart from freight), their energy use has increased, especially in the industrial and transportation sub-sectors.
- Distributed generation and storage technologies – e.g. rooftop solar arrays, battery storage systems – will allow an increasing number of households to produce and use their own electricity. This will reduce household reliance on the grid.
- Electric passenger vehicles will gradually replace traditional passenger vehicles, reducing residential consumption of gasoline. The price of electricity will eventually supplant the price at the pump as the most salient energy price for household budgeting.
- Net-zero energy homes are homes that produce at least as much energy as they consume on an annual basis. Net-zero energy homes are technically feasible, but not yet scaleable or affordable for the average homebuyer. The costs are falling, however, and net-zero energy homes may eventually become common.
Commercial and institutional energy use
Commercial and institutional energy use increased 34% between 1990 and 2016, but would have increased 58% without energy efficiency improvements.
Between 1990 and 2016, energy intensity decreased 8% in the sector.
In 2016, Canada’s commercial and institutional energy use totalled 997 petajoules. 55% of which was used for space heating, 14% for auxiliary equipment, 11% for lighting, 8% for water heating, 5% for auxiliary motors, 6% for space cooling, and 1% for street lighting.
Industrial sector energy use
The industrial sector includes all manufacturing, mining (including oil and gas extraction), forestry and construction activities. Industrial energy use increased 26% and would have increased 42% without the energy efficiency improvements made to the sector.
Since 1990, energy efficiency in the commercial and institutional sector has improved 16%, saving Canadians 426 PJ of energy and $4.9 billion in energy costs in 2016.
Energy intensity (MJ/$ of GDP) decreased 15%.
Canada’s industrial sector energy use in 2016 was 3,414 PJ. Natural gas accounts for 39% of that energy use, electricity for 22%, still gas and petroleum coke for 13%, wood waste and pulping liquor for 11%, diesel fuel oil, light fuel oil and kerosene for 7%, and other fuel types for 8%.
* “Other” includes HFO, coal, LPGs, NGL, steam and waste
The international community, along with Canada, have agreed that tackling climate change is a priority and an opportunity to shift towards a global low carbon economy.
The Paris Agreement, adopted in December 2015 under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), is a commitment to accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed for a sustainable low carbon future, to limit global average temperature rise to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C.
As a first step towards implementing these commitments, Canada developed the Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change. The Pan-Canadian Framework has four main pillars:
- pricing carbon pollution;
- complementary measures to further reduce emissions across the economy;
- measures to adapt to the impacts of climate change and build resilience; and
- actions to accelerate innovation, support clean technology, and create jobs.
Together, these interrelated pillars form a comprehensive plan to support Canada’s transition to a low carbon future.
Phasing Out Coal
To support this transition and to reduce GHG emissions, Canada has committed to phasing out its coal-fired electricity power plants by 2030.
Canada has reduced its coal consumption by 17% since 1990 and by 26% since 2000.
Carbon Pollution Pricing
Canada has committed to reduce GHGs by 30 percent from 2005 levels by 2030.
In 2016, the federal government announced a national climate change policy, which included a Canada-wide carbon pollution pricing system.
With existing and planned provincial action, broad-based carbon pollution pricing has started to apply in nearly all provinces and territories, covering a large part of Canada’s emissions.
Learn more about the Pathway to Canada’s 2030 target.
- Global Emission Sources: Environment and Climate Change Canada (National Inventory Report), Statistics Canada table 36-10-0434-01 and World Resources Institute (CAIT - Country Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data)
- GHG Overview: Environment and Climate Change Canada (National Inventory Report) and World Resources Institute (CAIT - Country Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data)
- Oil and Gas emissions intensity: Environment and Climate Change Canada (National Inventory Report)
- Electricity GHG: Environment and Climate Change Canada (Environmental Indicators: Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Canadian Economic Sector 1990–2017)
- Non-emitting electricity share: World Bank (Sustainable Energy for All database Global Tracking Framework)
- Solar and Wind Generation: International Energy Agency Annual Database
- Transportation GHG: Environment and Climate Change Canada (Environmental Indicators: Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Canadian Economic Sector 1990–2017)
- Transportation Fuel Mix: Office of Energy Efficiency’s National Energy Use Database
- Electric Vehicle Sales: Green Car Reports and Bloomberg New Energy Finance
- Province and Territory GHG Emissions: Environment and Climate Change Canada (Environmental Indicators: Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Province and territory 1990–2017)Statistic Canada table 17-10-0005-01
- Total primary energy supply: International Energy Agency Annual Database, World Energy Balances and International Energy Agency Standing Group on Long-Term Co-operation questionnaire
- Primary and secondary energy use: Office of Energy Efficiency’s National Energy Use Database based on Statistic Canada data
- Energy efficiency: Office of Energy Efficiency’s National Energy Use Database and NRCan (Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 to 2016 report)
- Energy intensity: Office of Energy Efficiency’s National Energy Use Database
- Residential, commercial and institutional sector: Office of Energy Efficiency’s National Energy Use Database and NRCan estimates
- Energy in our daily lives: NRCan (Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada 1990 to 2016 report)
- Trends in Energy Use and Intensity: Office of Energy Efficiency’s National Energy Use Database (Efficiency Trends Analysis tables)
- Transition to Low Carbon Future: Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change, Environment and Climate Change Canada (National Inventory Report)
- Coal Phase Out: International Energy Agency World Annual Balances
- Carbon Pollution Price: The World Bank Carbon Pricing Dashboard
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