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Earth Sciences Permafrost, Ice, and Snow

Ice, whether in fallen snow, embedded in soil as permafrost, moving across our landscapes as glaciers or covering our rivers and lakes, defines the character of much of Canada’s environment.  Ice in all of these forms are considered sensitive environmental indicators of climate change.  NRCan scientists are working to understand and monitor how permafrost, freshwater ice, glaciers and snow change in time and space and their relationship to the surrounding environment.


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  • The North
    • Physical Geography (Break-up of Sea Ice, Freeze-up of Sea Ice, Late Summer Sea Ice Conditions, Late Winter Sea Ice Conditions, Permafrost, Glaciers)

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